Notes 3-11-08 - yNotes Proteins Amino Acids Objective 1...

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yNotes 3-11-08 Proteins & Amino Acids Objective 1: •Describe how the chemical structure of proteins differs from the structures of carbohydrates and fats Objective 2: •Explain the difference between primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary protein structure Objective 3: •List and describe the functions of protein Objective 4 : •Describe the process of protein digestion and absorption Objective 5: •Explain how the body synthesizes new proteins Greek “protos” = “of vital importance” Carbs, Fats, and Proteins all contain Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen. Proteins also contain nitrogen . Proteins consist of long chains of 100 or so amino acids that are linked via peptide bonds. There are 20 kinds of amino acidsfound in proteins, each with a unique chemical structure. The 20 different amino acids are used like an alphabet to spell out the structure of particular proteins. The sequence of amino acids in a protein is specified by a gene (in DNA). Chains of more than 10 or so amino acids are known as polypeptides . (Peptides are proteins/amino acids.) Amino Acids: The Building Blocks of proteins Every amino acid contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. Every amino acid consists of a central carbon atom linking four subunits: 1. –the amino group (NH2) 2. –the carboxylic acid group (COOH) 3. –a hydrogen atom 4. –the variable side chain Side Chains Provide Unique Chemical Properties to Amino Acids May contain other elements, such as sulfur (common), phosphorus, or iron Some side chains are repelled by or attracted to neighboring amino acids Some side chains form links with amino acids on other polypeptide chains These forces cause polypeptides to variously bend, fold, or coil.
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