Notes 4-2-08 - examples ( prototypes) . Problem Solving:...

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Notes 4-2-08 Chapter 9 Concepts : our ideas of what everything we are able to think about is. It is the mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people. There are a variety of chairs but their resemblance determines the concept of a chair. Why are concepts and categories useful? - simplify memory storage - we can understand cases we have never encountered before - “pointers to knowledge” - Allows inferences about new objects based on members of the same category. Category Hierarchies: We organize concepts into category hierarchies. Development of Concepts: We form some concepts with definitions. For example, a triangle is a three-sided figure. Mostly, we form concepts with mental images or typical
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Unformatted text preview: examples ( prototypes) . Problem Solving: strategies include:-trial & error-algorithms- Checking every possible solution to a problem.-heuristics- simple thinking strategies that allow us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently. More error prone than algorithms.-Insight- involves a sudden novel realization of a solution to a problem. Humans and animals have insight. Confirmation Bias : most people tend to seek confirming evidence rather than disconfirming evidence. Fixation: an inability to see a problem from a fresh perspective. This impedes problem solving. Functional Fixedness: functions we think of for objects are inflexible....
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