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Unformatted text preview: Theories of the world and its creation: • The Big Bang -- Hubble’s Theory: it was a “cataclysmic event” that created everything, 13 billion and 700 million years ago. Then 4 billion and 500 million years ago our planet was formed. • “The Creation of the World” by Hieronymous Bosch – a work of art from 1504 (our world was flat, the bottom hemisphere of a globe, covered by a dome, God floating around the outside of the sphere) • “The Garden of Earthly Delights” • Scientology – theory expressed by Hubbard in a science fiction novel published in 1952 – humans are actually aliens, were imbedded in volcanoes. When those volcanoes erupted, humans flew out of them and onto the ground and began to take over • Walpi Nation of Native Americans in Arizona believed them came from the mountain nearby • Taos Pablo believed they came from a lake Theories of human development and migration: • Homo Sapiens are about 100,000 years old, characterized and classified by their overly large brains • Charles Darwin in 1859 – we evolved from common biological ancestors – cited fact that all animals look very much the same in the early stages of development Humans are accepted to have come out of Africa, so how did we get to the Western Hemisphere? • Bering Land Bridge theory (popular most of the 20 th century) – continents were connected by ice, people migrated to the western hemisphere o Issues: how on earth would they have survived the trek across the ice? o “Kennewick Man” found in Columbia River, Washington, is discovered to out- date the last ice-age, so humans were in West Hemisphere before Bering Land Bridge • Perhaps we sailed here – shipping devices, hearths, and human remains have been found on an ISLAND in California that date from 39,000 years ago • Coastal Migration Theory (the latest) – decides that we came on boats! Oldest fossils here are very similar to DNA found in southeast Asian countries – we followed the birds and the tides leaving from Asia to get to the Americas Focus on North America… Paleo-Indian Period – 11,000 years ago – humans were scavengers, hunting wooly mammoths, etc Woodland period is next, includes settling, planting, cultivating – creating homes and therefore stability At around year 800 the Mississippian Period starts: • In eastern North America, people are gathered in complex communities along the Mississippi River • Corn-based agriculture • Hierarchy: chief at the top, then priests; chiefs controlled their chiefdoms, and then many chiefdoms created paramount chiefdoms • People were mound-builders, creating earthworks that date back to 12,000 years ago • Simple mounds were used for housing or temples, while effigy mounds created pictures to those above them (the idea is that God will see them, because he exists as the sun) • Cahokia mound is largest, was the center of Mississippian life In Spain, however… • Two largest regions are united by the marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella in 1469...
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course GHIST 225 taught by Professor H.gelfand during the Spring '08 term at James Madison University.
- Spring '08