Chapter3.outline

Chapter3.outline - Sensation & Perception Chapter 3...

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Chapter 3 Outline Psychology 101 I. Sensation     -The process by which we receive, transform, and process stimuli  from the outside world to create sensory experiences. 1. Sensory Receptors-specialized cells that detect stimuli  and convert them into sensory experiences. 2. Psychophysics- 3. Absolute Threshold-the smallest amount of stimulus  that a person can reliably detect. 4. Difference Threshold- the minimal difference in the  magnitude of energy needed for people to detect a  difference between two stimuli 5. Just noticeable difference II. Vision-  a. The electromagnetic spectrum b. The color spectrum c. Parts of the eye i. Cornea 1. Transparent covering of the eye’s surface 2. light enters here ii. Iris 1. Muscle that contracts or expands to determine the amount  of light that enters 2. Gives the eye its color iii. Pupil 1. Black opening inside the iris 2. Allows light to enter the eye iv. Lens 1. Focuses light rays on the retina v. Retina 1. Light sensitive 2. contains photoreceptor cells vi. Photoreceptor Cells-specialized receptor cells that are sensitive to  light vii. Rods 1. allow us to detect objects in low light
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2. Detect intesnsity or brightness of light, not color 3. peripheral vision. viii. Cones 1. color vision 2. less sensitive to light 3. fine details of objects in bright light. ix. Convert physical energy of light into neural signals that the brain  processes to create visual sensations. d. Conversion of light to neural impulses e. Feature detectors-Neurons that respond to specific features of the visual  stimulus i. Visual cortex compiles information from various cells to form  meaningful patterns.  f. Trichromatic Theory of Color Vision i. Young-Helmholtz theory ii. Eyes have 3 types of color receptors 1. Red, green, blue-violet 2. color receptors are now called “cones” iii. Response pattern allows seeing of different colors g. Opponent-Process Theory- asserts that emotions are paired, and that when  one emotion in a pair is experienced, the other is suppressed h. Bothe theories are correct to a certain extent i. Color Blindness i. Trichromats-Normal  ii. Monochromats-Black and white iii. Dichromats-Can see some colors but not others III. Hearing a. Sound waves-like light, is a form of energy that travels in waves
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Chapter3.outline - Sensation & Perception Chapter 3...

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