chapter11 outline - Gender and Sexuality Ch 11 1 Terms a...

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Gender and Sexuality Ch. 11 1. Terms a. Sex -The biological aspects of being male or female. b. Gender -The behavioral, psychological, and social characteristics of men and women. c. Gender Roles -Cultural expectations imposed on men and women to behave in ways deemed appropriate for their gender. 2. Gender Identity -One’s sense of maleness or femaleness; usually includes awareness and acceptance of one’s biological sex. i. Usually established by age three. b. What determines gender identity i. Biological influences ii. rearing influences c. Transsexuals i. Mismatch between gender identity and biology ii. Many undergo gender reassignment surgery iii. Causes are unclear d. How are gender roles acquired? i. Social Cognitive theory 1. modeling 2. Reward/punishment 3. Gender Stereotypes-Fixed and conventional views on how males/females/ should act ii. Gender-Schema Theory 1. Incorporate the dress, toys, behaviors and social roles considered appropriate for male and females 2. In preadolescents, perception of being typical of one’s gender associated with better psychological adjustment iii. Evolutionary Theory 1. gender shaped by genetic predispositions 2. Men greater body strength, better visual-spatial skills 3. Women empathetic & nurturing\ iv. Sociocultural theory 1. Gender roles have more to do with how societies adapt to the environmental demands they face then biology e. Gender Role Identification i. Masculinity and femininity as two poles of a single continuum ii. Couldn’t you be a bit of both? iii. Androgyny-a gender-role identification that identifies with both masculine and feminine iv. Bem’s Traits (1974) f. Gender Differences i. Cognitive abilities 1. No evidence that either gender is smarter 2. Differences overshadowed by the similarities
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ii. Personality differences 1. Women: extraversion, warmth, openness to feelings, emotional expressiveness 2.
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