BIO102 Unit 3 Skeletal and Joint Systems Assignment.docx -...

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BIO102 Unit 3 Skeletal and Joint Systems Assignment 1. Classify bones according to their shapes. There are 206 bones that compose the adult skeleton are they are divided into five categories based on their shapes. Their shapes and their functions are related, and each categorical shape of bone has a distinct function. There are five classes of bones, flat, short, long, irregular, sesamoid, and sutural. Long bones are longer than they are wide, mainly located in the arms and legs. Short bones are usually as long as they are wide, are often described as being cube shaped. Flat bones are usually thin and sometimes have a curved shape to them. Irregular bones can vary in shape and are unique to the location that they are in. Sesamoid bones are small and flat. 2. Provide examples of each bone shape and a location where found in the body. At each end of a long bone a joint is formed. These Long bones are important because they aid in movement and they support the weight of the body. Some examples of long bones are the femur or thigh bone, the humerus which is the arm bone, and the phalanges which are bones of the fingers and toes. Short bones have little to no movement and they provide support and stability. Short bones are the carpals of the wrist and the tarsal bones that are located in the ankle. Flat bones protect internal organs such as the brain and heart, and many of them have broad surfaces for the attachment of muscles. Short bones are the cranial bones in the skull, the sternum and the ribs. Some irregular bones help protect organs and some such as the patella which is the kneecap and attach to tendons. Developed in the tendons or muscles, the sesamoid bone protects tendons from any type of compressive force. The patella is the largest sesamoid bone in our bodys. 3. Identify the major types of bone markings, and provide a function for each type. Bone markings are in one of three categories: articulations (surfaces), holes (depressions), and projections (process). Major bone markings are identified as crest, facet, process, head, fissure and the foramen. Holes are dips in the bone surface that allows nerves and blood vessels to pass through. Articulating bones are two surfaces that come together around a joint at which point determines what movement a joint can make. Projections are an area of the bone that sticks up off the surface. They are the sites of muscle and ligament connections where certain neck muscles attach to the skull. A foramen, is a type of depression, a hole in the bone through which nerves and blood vessels pass. 4. Explain the functional significance of surface features. Articulations Where two bones meet Knee joint Head Prominent rounded surface Head of femur Facet Flat surface Vertebrae
Condyle Rounded surface Occipital condyles Projections Raised markings Spinous process of the vertebrae Protuberance Protruding Chin Process Prominence feature Transverse process of vertebra Spine Sharp process Ischial spine Tubercle Small, rounded process Tubercle of humerus Tuberosity Rough surface

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