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Unformatted text preview: F IVE CHANGES I N AMER ICAN SOCIETY (1870s-1900) The changes that begin to change America and create the society we live in today. 1. Rise of National Business and Industrial System- Before, everything produced within city, or by oneself.- Why does it take off after the Civil War? a. Factors behind Rise i. T ransportation Improvements and New Technologies 1. 3,500 miles of Railroad. By 1900 over 200,000m. 2. Railroads- America’s 1 st big business. Operate Nationally. 3. RR replaces Wagon. Much Quicker. Goods cheaper to ship. 4. Telegraph spreads due to RR making deals w/ telegraph companies. 5. Telephone- 1870’s. 6. Method of Turning I ron to Steel Perfected. a. Steel: Skyscrapers, Bridges, Etc. Much Stronger then I ron 7. Oil Refining ii. Rise of Entrepreneurs and Managers • Men who could design, build, plan, transport, sell, etc. • John. D. Rockefeller- started oil refining business. Takes over competitors, controlled 90% of oil. STANDARD OIL COMPANY EXXON. • Andrew Carniage- went to Great Britian, saw process of turning iron to steel. Build industry and business. By 1900, had largest steel company in world US Steel. • All were successful because they were ruthless business men. Broke laws, took advantage of little govt and did what they wanted whether moral or immoral, etc. Extremely exploitive. o Nickname “Robber Barrons” • Accountants, Clerks, Secretaries, Sales Agents iii. Government Aid • Crucial ingredient to process • Direct aid to Big Business o Railroad: could not have risen without Govt Aid. • Federal, State, and Local Govt all helped out. • “Pacific Railway Bill”- federal govt contracted two railroad companies to build railway from California to Mid West. Gave companies 45m acres of land. Low interest loans. Sent US army out west to protect RR from Native Americans. Helped RR companies get land from Natives. • Fed Govt doesn’t regulate big Business to much degree. On top of that, helps Big Business when st rike occurs with Unions. State and Federal govt would send t roops to put down st rikes. • Federal Courts almost always ruled on side of Big Bus. • Ent repreneur Liberty- market would regulate itself. Federal Govt stay on sidelines. Let businesses do whatever. b. Changes Big Business Brought i. Business on a National Scale 1. Businesses operate nationally. In order for businesses to sell products from coast to coast, solve problems that allow products to be nationwide. 2. Goal: to take over everything. Land, industry, etc. 3. Have to destroy competition. Monopoly. 4. Vertical Integration control entire process....
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- Spring '08
- Civil War, George Pullman, Pullman Company, Sleeping car