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ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION AND RESEARCH: EMERGING TRENDS AND CONCERNS Cordelia Mason International School of Entrepreneurship Universiti Kuala Lumpur [email protected] ABSTRACT Entrepreneurship has gained much prominence in both developed nations and developing nations and has thus created higher demand for entrepreneurship education. There is increasing emphasis on education as a way to eradicate poverty and entrepreneurship as a catalyst for economic development by many nations around the world. In tandem, entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship education have been the focus of researchers, educators as well as public and private bodies. This paper explores the initiatives in entrepreneurship education in various parts of the world through content analysis of journal articles and websites on the subject in order to identify emerging trends and concerns. It describes efforts at the national and international levels to produce entrepreneurs and enhanced entrepreneurship training in countries such as China, , South Africa, Ireland and Malaysia. In the conclusion, observations of changes in trends are discussed. The paper aims to contribute to the understanding of entrepreneurship education and training and is especially relevant in the area of course design. Field of Research : Entrepreneurship, Education, Training, Teaching. 1. INTRODUCTION Entrepreneurship has gained much prominence in both developed and developing nations and has thus created higher demand for entrepreneurship education. The word ‘entrepreneur’ and ‘entrepreneurship’ is generally attributed to Richard Cantillon for coining the word in his essay entitled “Essay Sur la Nature du Commerce en General” (translated as “Essay on the Nature of Trade in General”) which was written in 1732 and published posthumously in 1755. The terms are derived from the French entreprendre, which is translated as meaning “to undertake”.
In existing literature, entrepreneurship has been described and conceptualized in various ways, encompassing a broad range of interchangeable meanings and situations, and as a concept and economic activity is full of contradictions and subject to conceptual and contextual debate (Matlay,2005). The various continuum and shades of meanings include capturing of ideas, converting them into products and, or service and building a venture to take the product to market(Johnson, 2001); inclusion of risk taking, pro activity and innovation as key elements in entrepreneurship(Dana,2001); expanding the realms of meaning to include “corporate entrepreneurship” and “intrapreneurship” (Drucker, 1994) and “tied entrepreneurship’ and ‘real corporate entrepreneur (Kandola, 2002). Tied entrepreneurship is defined as “guided behavior which exists in the shape of formally created positions or project groups, established to come up with new ideas or to develop existing ideas.” (Kandola, 2002). Matlay (2005) aptly deduces that entrepreneurship is perceived as crucial to the national integrity of virtually all countries of the world. The prevailing view of the importance of

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