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Genes&Society_2 BW slide perpage_Lecture12

29 how would stem cell therapy work the goal of any

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Unformatted text preview: h diff multipotent multipotent adult stem cells, each of which is responsible28 for developing into the cells of a certain type of tissue. 29 How would stem cell therapy work? The goal of any stem cell therapy is to repair repair a damaged tissue that can't heal itself. This might be accomplished by transplanting stem cells transplanting stem cells into into the damaged area and directing them to grow new, healthy grow new, healthy tissue. tissue. It may also be possible to coax stem cells to coax stem cells already already in the body to work overtime and produce new tissue produce new tissue. 30 Creating Creating Stem Cells for Research • How are stem cell therapies developed? • Embryonic stem cells from IVF embryos. Human embryonic stem cell lines can be derived from embryos created through in vitro fertilization (IVF). • Embryonic stem cells from therapeutic cloning. Embryonic stem cells can also be created by the same procedure procedure used to clone whole organisms, such as Dolly the sheep. Because of its potential medical uses, this method for creating stem cells is called therapeutic cloning. Therapeutic cloning might be viable approach to growing an exact tissue cloning might be a viable approach to growing an exact tissue match match for a patient in need - if the donor nucleus came from the patient, the resulting embryonic stem cell line would be a perfect match. perfect match. • Adult stem cell lines isolated from mature tissues are another excellent resource for research studies. Most research is performed using adult stem cell lines from model organisms such as mice and rats, since obtaining adult stem cells from humans can involve invasive surgical procedures. 31 32 Creating Creating a new cornea from corneal stem stem cells 1. Corneal stem cells are collected from healthy eye 2. Seed these cells onto matrix in culture dish 3. After stem cells grow sufficiently – they can be sewn into the th patients eye (in which cornea is damaged) 33 June 3, 2011 More than four years after a bone marrow stem cell transplant to treat leukemia in a HIV patient, he is now found to be HIV free! This has sparked excitement and interest for research to cure HIV infection 34 A personal supply of stem cells: personal Could be made from an embryo produced by nuclear transfer using an individual’s own cells and a donor human egg cell human egg cell •The embryo would be allowed to develop just until the embryonic stem cells are produced and before the embryonic stem cells are produced and before they they start to differentiate (~ 100 cell-stage) cell•These cells could be used to treat serious illnesses Th ill caused by damage to cells (e.g. diabetes, AIDS etc) “Therapeutic Cloning” But is this concept acceptable to most people?? is this concept acceptable to most people?? An alternative: using cells from the umbilical cord 35 Embryonic stem cell technology for germ germ-line therapy therapy (at the moment only available for mice!) Take ESC and manipulate in vitro to introduce replacement gene (homologous recombination = in a precise location – can be tested). •Introduce these manipulated cells into the early Introduce developing embryo – from where they can contribute to different kinds of tissues including the germ germ cells •Presently this...
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