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Genes&Society_2 BW slide perpage_Lecture12

A company founded by his followers announced friday

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Unformatted text preview: through cloning. Former French journalist Claude Vorilhon, who now calls himself Rael, claims to be a direct descendant of extraterrestrials who created human life on Earth through genetic engineering. A company founded by his followers announced Friday that the first human clone has been born -- a 7-pound baby girl dubbed "Eve." The announcement was met with skepticism and concern, announcement was met with skepticism and concern since other cloned mammals have had serious birth defects or developed health problems later. But in an interview with CNN, Rael dismissed concerns about health problems in cloned animals, saying "I have no doubt the child will be perfectly healthy." Brigitte Boisselier, scientific director of Clonaid, said the first cloned human baby was born Thursday. 47 How?? How?? Just like in sheep and monkeys…. •Cloning: nuclear transfer, embryo splitting nuc 50 “Mums” 400 eggs Donor DNA 48 Why?? Why?? •Replacement of a loved one (genetic duplicate duplicate of the dead) •Infertile couples can have children couples can have children •Spare parts: transplantation •(for embryonic stem cells?) 49 Infertility after cancer, lesbian couples, premature menopause, second marriage after hysterectomy, new kidneys for diabetic son son . Why?? http://www.globalchange.com/clonech.htm 50 JAN 2002 JAN 2002 By Advanced Cell Technology (ACT) Technology (ACT) – Dr Dr Jose Cibelli Therapeutic cloning: using the cloned cells to replace damaged to tissue tissue (e.g. Alzheimers, stroke, diabetes) 51 52 Scientific American Jan 2002 Mouse cloned to cure Parkinson's Last Updated: Sunday, 21 September, 2003, 17:08 GMT 18:08 UK Updated: Sunday 21 September 2003 17:08 GMT 18:08 UK Cells taken from cloned mouse embryos have been used to successfully have been used to successfully treat a condition similar to Parkinson's disease in humans. The breakthrough, by US researchers, could assist the search for a cure for the common brain condition. The embryonic "stem cells", reports the journal Nature Biotechnology, were grown into new tissue which was implanted into the mouse brain. However, many obstacles stand in the way of human treatments, say experts. Th The team, from the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York, is not the first to use th Sl th fi embryonic stem cells to treat Parkinsonism in mice, but they are the first to use cells which were cloned from the "patient". Although embryonic stem cells - taken from a five-day-old embryo - are all the same, they have th the ability, when placed in the right biochemical conditions, to be transformed into any cell type in th bi the body. 53 In theory, they could provide an inexhaustible supply of different tissue types to replace those lost through injury or illness. ACTUALLY ACTUALLY The world's first human clone of an adult was made, by Advanced Cell Technology in Nov 1998. They They took a cell from Dr Jose Cibelli and combined it with a cow’s egg from which the nucleus had already been removed. The genes activated and the egg began to divide in the normal The genes activated and the egg began to divide in the normal way way up to the 32 cell stage at which it was destroyed. If the clone had been allowed to continue beyond implantation it would have developed as Dr Cibelli's identical twin (in the ha de as Dr Cibelli's identical (in the cow?????). cow?????). Technically 1% of the human clone genes would have Technically 1% of the human clone’s genes would have belonged belonged to the cow - the mitochondria genes. Mitochondria genes. are power generators in the cytoplasm of the cell. They grow and divide inside cells and are passed on from one generation di to another. They are present in sperm and eggs. Judging by the successful growth of the combined human-cow clone humancreation it appears that cow mitochondria may well be 54 compatible with human embryonic development. Should Should Humans Be Cloned? http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/cloning.shtml#humans 55 Summary: Genetic Engineering & Cloning in Human 1. DNA vaccine DNA 2. Gene therapy: - Somatic Gene Therapy - ADA-SCID ADA- Cystic Fibrosis - Germ-line Gene Therapy Gene Therapy 3. Stem Cell Technology 4. Human Cloning -Reproductive Cloning Cl -Therapeutic Cloning 56...
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