Unformatted text preview: Poverty and Urbanization
Lecture 8 part II Geog 130 Case Study: Brazil Favelas in Brazil Solutions in Brazil Squatter Settlements Squatter housing accounts for 1/3 of total urban population in developing countries. Mexico city squatters exceed 4 million people. 15% growth a year (doubling in size every 6 years). Lack of government support in housing, infrastructure, and public services. Remove squatters result in higher unemployment of these population because of increase in transport costs. Particularly women. In summary, poverty is excessive. Forecasts for squatters The total number of squatter-dwellers in the world increased by about 36% during the 1990s. In the next 30 years, the global number of squatterdwellers will increase to about two billion if no concerted action to address the challenge of slums is taken. Favelas in Brazil: What are we going to do with all these people?
Jamie Worms Geography 212 February 23, 2006
geography.about.com/library/cia/blcbrazil.htm Statistics Today, Brazil's population is 186,112,794 s 56 million of which live in poverty. s 1/3 of the population lives in a favela. s 1/6 of the population does not have access to sewage, electricity, or running water. s The average favela has about 160,000 inhabitants. s http://www.worldatlas.com/webimage/flags/countr ys/samerica/brazil.htm What is a Favela?
The first historical register of a slum in Rio de Janerio is found in the census of 1920 which mentions the existence of 839 houses in downtown Providencia Hill. s This first slum was founded by veteran soldiers who fought in the War of Canudos (18951897). s The term came from these soldiers who fought in Bahia where, at the site of the war was a hill covered in a kind of tree called Favela. s What is a Favela?
A favela consists of: 1) Squatters 2) Selfhelp construction due to the 3) Lack of government aid and services Photo taken by Jamie Worms Rio de Janerio, 2006 s s s s "Selfhelp"
People living in favelas do not pay taxes and are not entitled to public services provided by the government. s Their houses are erected slowly utilizing a "selfhelp" method where more permanent materials are added on to previously existing structures. s Schools and other community services develop in the same "selfhelp" manner. s Poverty
Brazil had the worst income disparity in the world. s The World Bank estimates that 8 million people live on less than $1 per day.
s http://images.google.com/imgres? imgurl=http://musibrasil.net/img/rocinha111.jpg&imgrefurl=http://musibrasil.net/vsl_art.asp%3Fid %3D914&h=352&w=190&sz=26&tbnid=6Eh40m4eEx0J:&tbnh=116&tbnw=62&hl=en&start=133&prev=/images%3Fq %3Drocinha%26start%3D120%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26client%3Dfirefoxa%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:enUS:official_s Why do favelas form?
s s Foreign industries force smaller farmers to find work in Rio de Janeiro or So Paulo. Due to extremely high property values of the land in the big cities, these migrants form favelas along the outskirts of the cities and upon mountainsides. www.mimpiindah.de/ brasil/mfavdetail.JPG Social Consequences of Slavery
s The affects of slavery and social discrimination still exists today in and around these favelas. Approximately 70% of the people living in favelas are black and have difficulties overcoming prejudice to find work. s www.fmpsd.ab.ca/.../ df/Brazil/images/slums.jpg Environmental Problems
1/2 of the people living in the northeast are still live below the poverty line. s Their neighborhoods are without basic urban services, creating grave difficulties in waste disposal and water supply. s Contaminated groundwater combined with the "city's abysmal twenty percent rate of sewage treatment" has left the rivers in a state of disrepair. (Henkin, 1999). s Drugs and Gangs
Rio's favelas are ruled by three tightly organized drug gangs: 1) The Comando Vermelho (Red Command), 2) Terceiro Comando (Third Command), and 3) Amigos dos Amigos (Friends of Friends.) The police are exceedingly corrupt, take bribes, and feel that the favelas are outside their jurisdictions. The police are involved with the drug market that brews within their community. Some favela dwellers even prefer the drug gangs to the police as the drug gangs are community minded and invest in local soccer fields, youth development programs, and dance parties (Neuwirth, 2002) Rocinha/Favela Santa Marta (http://www.scal.org/Digital-Gallery/Mostar/images/Rocinha-Biggest%20Slum%20in%20SA_jpg.jpg) Favela Santa Marta Rio de Janeiro. 2006. Photo taken by Jamie Worms Santa Marta
Santa Marta at Night Photo taken by Jamie Worms Rio de Janeiro, 2006. Favela Santa Marta
Photo taken by Jamie Worms. Incline being built by the government. Rio de Janerio, 2006. Rocinha
Photo taken by Guilherme Fonseca Hang Gliding in Rio de Janerio. 2006. Rocinha Photo taken by Jamie Worms Rio de Janeiro, 2006. Rocinha
Photo taken by Jamie Worms Rio de Janerio, 2006. Final Photos http://www.lunde.vgs. no/bilder/operasjon_ga tebarn/foto_23_stor_fa vela.jpg http://www.enjeuxinternationaux.org/Images/f avela.jpg http://www.fmpsd.ab.ca/sc hools/df/Brazil/images/fav ela%20projects.jpg http://www.openmag.com/features/Vol_1 10/Brazil/gifs/favela.gif Conclusion
s In time, with the right government policies and programs, favelas could improve their economic situations and the environmental issues currently facing Brazil. Education along with proper funding for community programs would help to rectify the situation. s www.belobrasil.ch/.../ Brasilien_-_Elend_3.jpg Antipoverty efforts will take time...
Foreign investment, will ultimately improve the economy and provide jobs s Currently, 30 billion US dollars invested in the burgeoning markets of Brazil. s China is also exploiting the opportunities in Brazil. s It is estimated that Chinese investments could reach 5 billion dollars next year. s (Reynolds, Griffith, 2005) Who is Mr. Lula da Silva? s His election in 2002 was considered the high point of leftist in Latin America.
s Case Study: Brazil He is so popular that can win without a runoff with a 51% approval. His biggest supporter are the extremely poor. He encouraged Brazil to renege on its foreign debt, pointing at the IMF as one of the nation's enemies. As president, he restrained public spending and generated budget surpluses sufficient to pay off the whole $15 billion still owed to the IMF in one installment!!!!!!!!!!!! Despite U.S. warnings that Brazil will risk isolation by spurning the free trade plan, Brazilian exports soared to a record levels and monetary reserve rose to a solid $72.8 billion. He fought corruption by expelling 6 leftist congressmen when they opposed strict radical reform of a pension system chronically in the red. s s s s What has been the result? s Social Programs such as Zero Hunger, considered the world's largest income transfer to the poor, which funnels $325 million a month to 45 million Brazilians.
s Case Study: Brazil The proportion of poor in Brazil fell more than 19% between 2003 and 2005, to only 23% of the population !!!!!!!!! Brazil has met its so called Millennium Goal--to reduce extreme poverty by half between 1990 and 2015-- about 10 years early. In Brazil, since the early 1990s extreme poverty--defined as $1 per day income-- has dropped more than 50 percent and now afflicts 5.3% of the population.
(source: Olmos, Harold. (September 26, 2006) "Brailian Leader in Balancin Force." The Washington Times. s s ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course ENES 102 taught by Professor Biegel during the Fall '07 term at Maryland.
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