StuDocu is not sponsored or endorsed by any college or universitySolution Manual of Chapter 2 - Managerial Accounting 15thEdition (Ray H. Garrison, Eric W. Noreen and Peter C.Brewer)Managerial Accounting (University of Sargodha)Downloaded by Naheem Mahtab ([email protected])lOMoARcPSD|4718088
Solution ManualManagerial Accounting15thEditionManagerial Accounting and Cost ConceptsRay H. Garrison, Eric W. Noreen, Peter C. BrewerC h a p t e r -2Downloaded by Naheem Mahtab ([email protected])lOMoARcPSD|4718088
1 Chapter 2 Managerial Accounting and Cost Concepts Solutions to Questions 2-1The three major elements of product costs in a manufacturing company are direct materials, direct labor, and manufacturing overhead. 2-2 a.Direct materials are an integral part of a finished product and their costs can be conveniently traced to it. b.Indirect materials are generally small items of material such as glue and nails. They may be an integral part of a finished product but their costs can be traced to the product only at great cost or inconvenience. c.Direct labor consists of labor costs that can be easily traced to particular products. Direct labor is also called “touch labor.”d.Indirect labor consists of the labor costs of janitors, supervisors, materials handlers, and other factory workers that cannot be conveniently traced to particular products. These labor costs are incurred to support production, but the workers involved do not directly work on the product. e.Manufacturing overhead includes all manufacturing costs except direct materials and direct labor. Consequently, manufacturing overhead includes indirect materials and indirect labor as well as other manufacturing costs. 2-3A product cost is any cost involved in purchasing or manufacturing goods. In the case of manufactured goods, these costs consist of direct materials, direct labor, and manufacturing overhead. A period cost is a cost that is taken directly to the income statement as an expense in the period in which it is incurred. 2-4 a.Variable cost: The variable cost per unit is constant, but total variable cost changes in direct proportion to changes in volume. b.Fixed cost: The total fixed cost is constant within the relevant range. The averagefixed cost per unit varies inversely with changes in volume. c.Mixed cost: A mixed cost contains both variable and fixed cost elements. 2-5 a.Unit fixed costs decrease as volume increases. b.Unit variable costs remain constant as volume increases. c.Total fixed costs remain constant as volume increases. d.Total variable costs increase as volume increases. 2-6 a.Cost behavior: Cost behavior refers to the way in which costs change in response to changes in a measure of activity such as sales volume, production volume, or orders processed.