Ch 6-Learning - Chapter 6-Learning 10/4/07-10/9/07 Learning...

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Chapter 6-Learning 10/4/07-10/9/07 Learning A theoretical abstract that we infer from changes in behavior o Necessary for successful adaptation to one’s environment o We imply casual relationships based on the temporal proximity of two events Perspectives in learning Behaviorists : focus on how organisms learn by examining adaptations (changes) in behavior o Tabula rasa : the notion that organisms come into the world as a “blank slate” Ethologists : believe that every species comes biologically to act in certain ways o Fixed action patterns : innate behavioral responses that occur in the absence of learning Classical Conditioning Discovered by Ivan Pavlov, also commonly called “Pavlovian Conditioning” Classical conditioning is “passive” learning: no behavioral output is required for an association to be formed Components of Classical Conditioning The Unconditioned reflex o Unconditioned stimulus(UCS) : a stimulus that elicits an automatic response (UCR) without requiring prior learning o Unconditioned response (UCR) : the reflexive response elicited by a particular stimulus The learned reflex
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Chapter 6-Learning 10/4/07-10/9/07 o Conditioned stimulus (CS) : an originally neutral stimulus that acquires significance through repeated paintings of the scenario o Conditioned response (CR) : Classical Conditioning: Acquisition The unconditioned stimulus (UCS) Phases of classical conditioning Acquisition Extinction Spontaneous recovery (CS alone) Second spontaneous recovery (CS alone) Other critical tenets of classical conditioning Extinction : occurs when the CS is repeatedly presented without the UCS o Animal will stop responding Spontaneous recovery : renewed responding to CS after extinction AND some time has passed o Occurs even though no further CS-UCS pairings have been delivered A special case Single trial learning : occurs when just one CS-UCS pairing is sufficient to produce learning o Example: CS (e.g. snake) is paired with a UCS (e.g. bite) in one-trial
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Ch 6-Learning - Chapter 6-Learning 10/4/07-10/9/07 Learning...

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