What is Enlightenment by Immanuel Kant .docx - History of...

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History of Ideas Term Report: “WHAT IS ENLIGHTENMENT – IMMANUEL KANT”
TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................... 2 ENLIGHTENMENT MOVEMENT .............................................................................. 2 ENLIGHTENMENT BY KANT ..................................................................................... 3 REASONS OF SELF IMPOSSED IMMATURITY ........................................................... 3 FREEDOM IN ENLIGHTENMENT .............................................................................. 4 AUTONOMY & HETERONOMY ................................................................................ 4 PRIVATE & PUBLIC USE OF REASONING .................................................................. 5 UNIVERSAL EMANCIPATION .................................................................................... 6 CONCLUSION .......................................................................................................... 7 BIBLIOGRAPHY ........................................................................................................ 8 1 | P a g e
INTRODUCTION Immanuel Kant was an 18 th century German philosopher. He was the most influential philosopher in the Western Philosophy. He was one of the foremost thinkers of the Enlightenment Movement. His comprehensive and systematic work in epistemology (the theory of knowledge), ethics, and aesthetics greatly influenced all subsequent philosophy, especially the various schools of Kantianism and idealism. Kant was the biggest advocate of Enlightenment in his era and was also known as the Christ of Enlightenment. Kant wrote the book “Answering the Question: What is Enlightenment?” in reply to a question posted by a Prussian government official. In this book, he described what is Enlightenment Movement in the west. What is Enlightenment according to his own beliefs and why the concept and movement of Enlightenment is necessary for the world?[ CITATION Jam96 \l 2057 ] ENLIGHTENMENT MOVEMENT The Enlightenment Movement is an on-going movement in the Europe which was started in Europe during 17 th and 18 th century. This movement was started by many prominent social scientists including Francis Bacon, Thomas Hobbes, and Rene Descartes etc. This movement is also known as The Age of Reasoning in European History. The Enlightened Thinker of this movement is also known as Philosophes.[CITATION Men99 \l 2057 ]. Before the emergence of Enlightenment Movement, The European society was a very conservative society where monarchs rule and churches were the power centres. However, this movement changed the views and beliefs of the Europeans which resulted in leaving from absolutism and divine law and more towards individual rights and freedom. The society as a whole started moving towards democratic and liberal society.[ CITATION Jam96 \l 2057 ] It was an intellectual movement in the West in which people began to change their views on the world and on the society through their reason and scientific study. It was the movement of intellectual, philosophical, cultural and art advancements in the Europe. In this movement, the intellectuals and philosophers of the European society started using methods of modern sciences to study human behaviours, run political system and to solve social and economic problems. The people were more interested in using their reasoning skills to find meaning and purpose of life.[ CITATION Fle13 \l 2057 ] In the Enlightenment Movement, The enlightened philosophies gave more emphasis to individual rights, freedom of self, freedom of speech, logic and reasoning and these factors proved to be a means of breaking the chains of social dogmas, blind faith and superstition.

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