Ch 12-Personality

Ch 12-Personality - Chapter 12-Personality General overview...

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Chapter 12-Personality 1 General overview of personality Personality : refers to an individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, acting, feeling, and behaving. There are two key elements to personality: o Uniqueness : how we differ from others o Persistence : how specific aspects of our personality endure over time Personality trait : a durable disposition to behave in a particular way in a variety of situations Goals for understanding personality Understanding how personality allows for: o Description of individual characteristics o Prediction of how people will act under varying circumstances o Explanation of how psychological disorders evolve so that effective treatments can be developed Psychodynamic theory Includes all of the diverse theories descended from the work of Sigmund Freud, which focus on unconscious mental forces o Sigmund Freud: psychoanalysis o Carl Jung: the collective unconscious o Alfred Adler: striving for superiority Sigmund Freud “No one who, like me, conjures up the most evil of those half-tamed demons that inhabit the human beast, and seeks to wrestle with them, can expect to come through the struggle unscathed.” Psychoanalytic theory (Freud) Proposes that childhood security. .. Personality structures proposed by Freud Note: these are NOT physical entities but rather abstract psychological concepts Id : constantly strives to satisfy basic biological drives. Operates on the pleasure principle. o Pleasure principle : if no constraint exists, it seeks immediate gratification Freud’s personality structures (cont.) Ego : contains our partly conscious perceptions, thoughts and actions o Interacts with id and superego o Operates by the reality principle Seeks to gratify id’s impulses in a realistic manner that will bring long term pleasure Super-Ego : voice of morals and values. Forces the ego to consider the real and the ideal. Develops over time.
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Chapter 12-Personality 2 Levels of consciousness and personality structures Freud’s psychological stages Oral : pleasure centers on the mouth (sucking, biting, chewing) Anal : pleasure focuses on bowel and bladder elimination (coping with demands for control) Phallic : pleasure zone is the genitals (coping with incestuous sexual feelings) o Oedipus complex : boys develop sexual desires for their mother and a jealousy/hatred for their fathers
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Ch 12-Personality - Chapter 12-Personality General overview...

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