Chapter 14-Disorders

Chapter 14-Disorders - Chapter 14-Disorders 1 Defining...

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Chapter 14-Disorders 1 Defining abormal. .. What is abnormal? o We are likely to label behaviors as abnormal if. .. They are unusual They are socially unacceptable or violate social norms (statistically or culturally deviant) Perception or interpretation of reality is faulty The person is in severe personal distress The behavior is dangerous What is not abnormal? o Unusual or statistically deviant behavior is NOT necessarily abnormal Eg.) exceptional behavior (extreme intelligence, physical ability, etc.) also deviates from the norm Culture and normality The definition of normal is culturally defined o Eg.) Many Native Americans report hearing the spirits of people who have recently died calling to them as they transcend to the afterlife. Such behavior is quite normal within their cultural setting. Psychopathology Abnormal behavior patterns that lead to impairments in social and/or occupational functioning Etiology : refers to the cause, source, or origin of specific symptoms or syndromes Classification of Disorders DSM-IV : The diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4 th edition) o Describes the diagnostic features of disorders, but DOES NOT attempt to explain their origins o Specific criteria are used to diagnose disorders based on the nature and prevalence of symptoms o Abnormal behavior patterns that share clinical features are grouped together o Allows clinicians and researchers to standardize diagnosis, and facilitates clinical communication DSM-IV Axis Axis I: primary clinical symptoms o The patterns of abnormal behavior that impair functioning and are stressful to the individual Axis II: reflects personality or developmental disorders o Deeply ingrained, maladaptive ways of perceiving others that are stressful to the individual or others Axis III: general medical conditions
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Chapter 14-Disorders 2 o Chronic or acute illnesses and medical conditions that are important for understanding the disorder or may be casually related to the disorder Axis IV: rating of intensity of environmental stressors o Problems in the social or physical environment that affect the diagnosis, treatment, or outcome of mental disorders Axis V: global assessment of functioning o Overall judgment of current functioning, or highest level of functioning achieved in the past few months Legal issues Competency : a defendant’s state of mind at the time of a judicial hearing Insanity : presumed state of mind at the time the crime was committed. Insanity is a legal term, not a psychological one. Labeling theory
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Chapter 14-Disorders - Chapter 14-Disorders 1 Defining...

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