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Chapter 4 Body Basics - CHAPTER4 THEBODYBASICS Chemistry...

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CHAPTER 4 THE BODY BASICS
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Chemistry and Physiology Chemistry Study of composition and characteristics of matter Human physiology Study of how the human body functions Principles of chemistry and human physiology form the foundation for the scientific study of nutrition.
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Basic Chemistry Concepts Chemicals make up food and other aspects of the environment. Humans are complex collections of chemicals… mostly organized into living units cells.
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From Atoms to Compounds Matter is made of atoms that contain: Protons Positively - charged particles in the nucleus Electrons Negatively - charged particles that surround the nucleus in a “cloud” Element - A substance that cannot be broken down into smaller components - Elements are the “building blocks” of matter
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Elements in the Human Body Insert Table 4.1
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Molecules Insert Figure 4.2 Molecule – Matter that forms when 2 or more atoms interact and are held together by a chemical bond (such as H 2 0 or C 6 H 12 O 6 ) Chemical bond Forms when atoms interact, share electrons, and rearrange themselves
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Compounds Compound – Molecule that contains 2 or more different elements Solution – Evenly distributed mixture of 2 compounds The 2 compounds in a solution are: Solvent - the greater component Solute - lesser component Water is the solvent for many solutions.
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Solubility Describes how easily a substance dissolves in a liquid Insert figure 4.3
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Ions Insert Figure 4.4 Ion – E lectrically-charged atom or group of atoms. Ions form when the atom or group of atoms gains or loses 1 or more electrons Negative charge - gain of an electron OH -   (hydroxide ion)   Positive charge - loss of an electron H (hydrogen ion)
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What Are Acids and Bases? Insert Figure 4.5 Acids – Donate hydrogen ions Bases – Accept hydrogen ions pH – Measure of acidity or alkalinity of a solution
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What’s a Chemical Reaction? Chemical Reaction Process that changes atomic arrangement of molecules Digestion Process by which molecules in food are mechanically and chemically broken down Metabolism Chemical reactions occurring in living cells
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Enzymes Insert Figure 4.8 Enzyme Protein that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction but is not altered during the process Names of most enzymes end in “ ase sucrase lactase lipase protease
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Basic Physiology Concepts
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Chapter 4 Body Basics - CHAPTER4 THEBODYBASICS Chemistry...

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