World History- typed notes

World History- typed notes - Indo-Europeans: Persia's...

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Indo-Europeans: Persia’s Global Empire I. The Persian conquest of Mesopotamia (and beyond): The Persian Conquest: - Neo-Babylonian (Chaldean) Empire- Jews deported - King Nabonidus- Neo-Babylonian king 556-539 - Persians (group of Indo-Europeans) move into Iranian plateau - Cyrus (585- 529 BCE). By year 550, under leadership of King Cyrus. Had moved into central Turkey and took over monarchies in that area. Signifying: they were very powerful. -Cambyses= Cyrus’ son (529-522). Conquers Eqypt 522. Persians: incredible achievement by force of arms. Cyrus and Cambyses: a lot of political power, power over their people, etc. -Darius I (521-486): Cambyses’s successor How they ruled: -Proskynesis= Assyrian tradition picked up by Persians. Subjects would perform proskynesis in front of Persian king. -Satrapy (governed by satrap)- live province, state. Ruled local regions for Persian King. Able to communicate by Persian-built roads. King’s eyes and ears. II. Zoroaster’s form of Monotheism in Persia: -Early Persian religion: Daevas (bad spirits), Ahuras (good spirits), Best of Spirits: Ahura Mazda, Priests: called magi. - Zarathustra (Zoroaster). Avesta= source for Persian religion. Main scripture for Zoroastrianism. (Gathas= oldest hymns) Avesta like Hebrew bible with many different documents all put together. - Zoroaster, at age 30 believed he had a vision of Ahura Mazda. - Zoroaster’s teachings: supremacy of Ahura Mazda *Monotheism* Daevas= demons. Ahuras= angels -Ahura Mazda- Source of all goodness- Creator of the universe- Invisible- Changeless- Omniscient- Omnipresent- beyond human understanding- only god deserving worship -Spenta Manyu (spirit within Ahura Mazda). Ahura Mazda created the cosmos in 7 stages, he did this through Spenta Manyu= “holy spirit.” A part of ahura mazda, not separate being. -Cosmic Dualism: Two chief divine forces in the universe (Ahura Mazda and Ahriman) Struggle against one another through time. Goodness
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(Ahura Mazda and Spenta Manyu) vs evil (Ahriman, who was still created by Ahura Mazda). People choose which to follow. II. Significance of the Persians: -Absorbed elements of the cultures they dominated, but the Persian subjects also pick up their Persian influence. (give and take of culture). -Dead Sea Scrolls: evidence of Persian influence: sect divided all of humanity into the righteous and the wicked, sees one as ruled by the prince of light and the other by the angel of darkness The Formation of the Greek Polis I. From Mycenaean monarchies to the Archaic polis -Athens= most democratic. Sparta= least democratic. Very different, yet make up many common elements that make up Greek civilization. -Mycenae: literate, found many tablets with script in early Greek. Also, extremely wealthy through Near East trade. Kings and castles 1200, 1100. -Greece: geography= mountains, sea, islands
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World History- typed notes - Indo-Europeans: Persia's...

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