MMW 1 - Notes - 10/1 Theoretical Models- Adaptation-...

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Unformatted text preview: 10/1 Theoretical Models- Adaptation- Evolution- Classification Foraging(Hunting and Gathering)- Most common form of subsistence- Early Homo sapiens and the relevant archaeological data- Living foragers: BaMbuti ethnographic data Adaptation- Not an individual process, through inheritable traits- Natural variation exists between every species, no two identical- Not all of your genes are passed on to your offspring, only pass on half (you and mate)- Biological success is a result of good genes and adaptation of those genes- Natural selection will allow the best adapted genes to reproduce and endure Evolution- Gradual transformation over time- Explains relations between living things- Speciation the formation of new species through evolution and mutation of genes- Non-Directional Geological Time- 4.5 billion year old earth- Common ancestor to modern chimps and humans originated 6 to 7 million years ago- First Homo sapiens ca.200,000 years ago Africa- Enormous and has a large, diverse, amount of variable environments- Africa of today is not the same as 7 million years ago, or even 200,000 years ago Dating- Radiometric looking at the trace amounts of radioactive elements and we know how fast - Volcano bracketing date each volcanic eruption and place the fossil between the dates- Context dating finding fossil with other known fossils or animals that we know their age Evidence- Human similarity to apes we look similar, but have differences- Fossils we found also have human-like similarities but also have differences- DNA compare ours to other species and we are closest to chimpanzees 10/3 Relations between Living Apes 25 mya apes split from other primates 18 mya gibbons split from other apes 7-9 mya gorillas split from other apes and became much larger 5-7 mya chimpanzees and bonobos split from hominids Our closest living relatives chimpanzees and bonobos we are related to them but we are not descended from them (like you are not descended from your cousin, but you and your cousin are descendants from your grandfather) neither species existed 7 mya descended from a common ancestor with chimps and bonobos Our Non-Living relatives found mainly in the African rift valley which is a natural fault that is ripping the continent apart fossils found here posses both human and ape characteristics earlier specimens are more ape-like and later are more humanoid Lucy 40% complete skeleton 3.2 mil years old her species is Australopithecus afarensis (southern ape/ Afar region) 3-4 feet tall the teeth are larger than a humans but smaller than a chimpanzees estimated brain size is almost equivalent to the modern chimpanzees very protruding lower face, protrudes outward, large jaw, smaller back portion of skull probably bipedal because: small pelvis, angled femur, upright posture, strong knee connection, large toe and ankle not 100% sure: long arms, long curved fingers...
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MMW 1 - Notes - 10/1 Theoretical Models- Adaptation-...

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