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Unformatted text preview: 10/8 Cladogenesis type of speciation in which one species mutates and evolves into two separate and distinct species Anagenesis type of speciation in which one species gives birth to another and they evolve in a linear format Taxonomy and Classification we construct evolutionary relationships through comparative data (extant species) and the fossil record (extinct species and almost always incomplete) intraspecific variation within a species interspecific variation between different species Evolutionary Systematics def - ancestors and descendants are traced in time by analysis of homologous characters these expert put together phylogenetic trees in which the location of each taxon indicates only the relative time of its appearance within homology shared trait through descent from a common ancestor homoplasy similarity with no phyletic continuity homologous shared ancestry analogous similar function irrespective of phyletic continuity Cladistic Taxonomy def - where species are grouped according to shared derived characters and traits there is no time dimension, they only compare extant species to each other cladogram tree-like diagram or the species representing their genealogy of which is based on a variety of shared traits shared (ancestral, primitive, conserved) traits inherited from a common ancestor derived (modified) traits modified from ancestral condition principle of parsimony if we are confronted by several possible explanations, the simplest one (with the fewer assumptions) is most likely to be correct most parsimonies involves the smallest number of separate evolutionary changes Primates prosimians lemurs, lorises, and tarsiers anthropoids subdivided into monkeys, apes, and humans they are generalists able to adapt to many different environments arboreal live in the trees, derive necessities from the trees adaptive niche very different and variety of niches that can be occupied diurnal active during day (mostly this one) nocturnal active during night habitats include northern South America, all but Northern Africa, Southeast Asia primary and secondary rain forest, gallery forest, woodland, and savanna all are occupied by primates for specific reasons that differ between each habitat 10/10 Rainforest equatorial, 1500mm annual rainfall complex ecosystems low seasonality annual peaks of flowers and fruits primates are arboreal and maneuver in the 3d space (evolved for) Gallery Forest a body of water, river, is the center of the forest life and the forest will follow the river found in dry tropical areas broken nature of the habitat give critical access point for water in dry season and protection from predators high energy fruits, not found in surrounding savannahs lots of leaves folivorous Woodland highly seasonal habitat...
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course GENERAL ED MMW 1,2; E taught by Professor Vandehey during the Spring '08 term at UCSD.
- Spring '08