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Chapter 2 NotesThe Planting of English AmericaA. England’s Imperial Stirrings•While South America had been largely settled, North America remained undiscovered.i.To get ahead of the rest of the world, the Spanish set up an outpost at Santa Fe in 1610, the French at Quebec in 1608, and the English at Jamestown, Virginia, in 1607.•England didn’t put much of a foot forward in the claiming of land in the New World because they had been an ally with Spain and had lots of their own religious conflicts between the Roman Catholics and Protestants to deal with.i.King Henry VIII broke away from the Roman Catholic Church, started the English Protestant Reformation. The two religions battled tirelessly until Protestant Elizabeth took the throne and Protestantism became the dominant religion.ii.Catholic Ireland tried to get help from Catholic Spain to rival the Protestant England, but was to no avail in the 1570s and 1580s, where Elizabeth crushed the rebellions and sent Protestant farmers to control land in Ireland.B. Elizabeth Energizes England•Even though England and Spain were technically at peace, English pirates sought to steal treasure from Spanish ships.i.One famous buccaneer was Francis Drake who, returning in 1580 from his triumphant mission, was so successful that even the queen backed him.•After Sir Humphrey Gilbert died in 1583, Sir Walter Raleigh took over the colonization of Newfoundland in 1585.•With all the profits Spain made, they armed 130 ships and attacked England, who fought back and easily crushed the Spanish. They were also aided by a devastating storm that drove away the Spanish for good.i.Spain had become too cocky and was doomed to fail at this point; England’s naval dominance was secured.•England was blooming with nationalism after the defeat of the Spanish armada. Shakespeare came into play at this time, and the people of England grew more and more curious about the New World’s treasures.i.England and Spain signed a peace treaty in 1604, which allowed the English to move forward with their plans to colonize the New World.C. England on the Eve of Empire•Many were forced to the streets of England after the woolen trade was hit by a recession. The population mushroomed from 3 million in 1550 to 4 million in 1600.•Since only eldest sons were allowed to inherit fortunes, the younger sons of Gilbert, Drake, and Raleigh formed a joint-stock company in the early 1600s.D. England Plants the Jamestown Seedling
•A joint-stock company, The Virginia Company of London, received a charter from King James I of England to settle in the New World and he would make it rich from their profits.•Settlers in the New World were promised the same liberties as those living in England.•In late 1606, the Virginia Company’s ships landed near Chesapeake Bay and chose a location on the James River to create Jamestown on May 24th, 1607.