Chapter 3 NotesSettling the Northern ColoniesA. The Protestant Reformation Produces Puritanism•German friar Martin Luther protested the Wittenberg cathedral in 1517.i.He believed that the Bible alone was the source of God’s word.•John Calvin of Geneva followed the beliefs of Martin Luther and began the original beliefs of Calvinism.•Calvin wrote “Institutes of the Christian Religion” in 1536 which stated that God was all-knowing and good and humans were evil and wicked.•Calvinists were extremely paranoid about their heavenly destinies and constantly sought “conversion” signs which revealed their heavenly place.•Calvinism fed off the social unrest and provided comfort for the poor.•Puritans grew restless with the progress of the Protestant Reform and wished to see the Church of England completely de-Catholicized.•The Church of England allowed everybody to join, and the Puritans were unhappy with this so they formed a group of extreme Puritans, called Separatists, who vowed to break away from the church.•King James I, ruler of church and state from 1603 to 1625, disliked that his subjects were defying him, and threatened to ban some Separatists from the land.B. The Pilgrims End Their Pilgrimage at Plymouth•A band of Separatists fled to the New World, seeking a land where they could live and die as English Puritans.i.These Separatists boarded the Mayflower to the New World to start over again in Virginia. A prominent member of the ship was Captain Myles Standish, who was an important Indian negotiator•The Pilgrims chose their land outside of the Virginia territory at Plymouth Bay, and therefore were squatters and could not legally form a government.•The Pilgrims signed the Mayflower Compact, which was an agreement that they would form a crude government and obey the rules said organization created.•After the winter of 1620-1621, only 44 of the 102 Pilgrims survived. When the Mayflower left to sail back to England in the spring, though, nobody returned.•The autumn of 1621 brought a great harvest, with the Pilgrims able to build an economic foundation on fur, fish, and lumber. They also had the first Thanksgiving Day.•William Bradford stood out as the leader among the Pilgrims, and was elected annually 30 times. He worried that non-Puritan settlers would corrupt his government.•The population of Plymouth was only 7,000 in 1691, when they merged with the Massachusetts Bay Colony.C. The Bay Colony Bible Commonwealth•More moderate Puritans attempted to reform the Church of England by slowly gaining support from various sources, ultimately failing when Parliament was dismissed by Charles I in 1629, where most of their support came from.•In 1629, a group of more moderate Puritans secured a charter to form the Massachusetts Bay Company and brought the charter with them as a sort of constitution.