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Chapter 8 NotesAmerica Secedes from the Empire1775-1783A. Congress Drafts George Washington•After the battle at Lexington and Concord in April of 1775, about 20,000 Minutemen swarmed around Boston, outnumbering the British.•The Second Continental Congress met in Philadelphia on May 10, 1775 and all 13 colonies attended.I.They had no real sentiment for independence, just a desire to keep fighting.II.They drafted new appeals to the British people and king that were turned down.III.It adopted measures to raise money and to create an army and navy.IV.They appointed George Washington to command the army, although extremely inexperienced, he was gifted with great leadership and character.IV.a)He insisted on serving without pay.IV.b)This was a largely political move.B. Bunker Hill and Hessian Hirelings•The colonists maintained their loyalty to the king, but on the other hand they were raising armies and shooting at his soldiers.•In May 1775, a small American force under Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold, surprised and captured the British garrisons at Ticonderoga and Crown Point.•In June 1775, the colonials seized Bunker Hill in BostonI.The Americans were forced to retreat when the Redcoats launched a full frontal attack on them and their gunpowder supply ran out.•King George III hired lots of German soldiers to crush his rebellious citizens after shutting the door on any hopes of reconciliation.C. The Abortive Conquest of Canada•In October 1775, the British burned Falmouth (Portland), Maine.•The colonists invaded Canada that fall to create a 14thcolony and deprive Britain of a base for striking at the colonies in revolt.I.General Richard Montgomery captured Montreal and was joined at Quebec by the army of Benedict Arnold.II.The assault on Quebec resulted in Montgomery’s death and Arnold’s leg wound.•In January 1776, the British set fire to Norfolk, Virginia, but were forced to evacuate Boston in March.•In the South, the colonials won a victory against some 1,500 Loyalists at Moore’s Creek Bridge in North Carolina and against an invading British fleet at Charleston Harbor.D. Thomas Paine Preaches Common Sense•Americans gradually came to analyze the British acts of terrorism against them.•Thomas Paine published Common Sense in 1776, which sold 120,000 copies in a few months.I.He questioned why the tiny island of England should control the vast continent of AmericaII.He called the king “the Royal Brute of Great Britain.”E. Paine and the Idea of “Republicanism”