stem cell 2003

stem cell 2003 - jun Patel HUM101 Stem Cell Research...

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jun Patel HUM101 Stem Cell Research 12/12/2007 Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that are in all multi-cellular organisms. These undifferentiated cells can renew themselves as well as specialize into multiple types of cells. There are two main types of stem cells, embryonic and adult. Much controversy surrounds using embryonic stem cell research. Though stem cell research has some negative aspects, advancements in science and technology has led stem cells to benefit society in various ways. Stem cell research was started in the early 1900’s when doctors attempted to give bone marrow to leukemia patients orally. The oral treatment was unsuccessful, but placed curiosity to use bone marrow as a form of healing. Scientists began to experiment with mice by infusing healthy bone marrow from one mouse and placing it in another mouse with degenerative bone marrow. Scientists found that the healthy bone marrow greatly restored the unhealthy bone marrow. The idea of an allogeneic bone marrow transplant on humans was now considered feasible. The first step in this process was to understand the human immune system in order to ensure success. “In 1958 Jean Dausset identified the first of many human histocompatibility antigens. These proteins, found on the surface of most cells in the body, are called human leukocyte antigens, or HLA antigens. These HLA antigens give the body's immune system the ability to determine what belongs in the body and what does not belong. Whenever the body
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does not recognize the series of antigens on the cell walls, it creates antibodies and other substances to destroy the cell” (All About Popular Issues). Histocompatibility antigens made it difficult to transplant bone marrow from one person to another due to the fact of different histocompatibility antigens in different people. After a few advancements in figuring out a persons histocompatibility antigen, bone marrow transplants because possible. The government set different laws and organizations that helped people who needed these transplants, get them safely. The actual stem cell research was started when “in 1998, James Thompson (University of Wisconsin - Madison) isolated cells from the inner cell mass of early embryos, and developed the first embryonic stem cell lines. In the same year, John Gearhart (Johns Hopkins University) derived germ cells from cells in fetal gonadal tissue (primordial germ cells). Pluripotent stem cell "lines" were developed from both sources. The blastocysts used for human stem cell research typically come from in vitro fertilization (IVF) procedures” (All About Popular Issues). The ethical concerns over this type of embryonic stem cell research began after the public found out that the embryo used to pull the stem cells out would be discarded. Even though the embryo was thrown out, the stem cell research innovation would change
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stem cell 2003 - jun Patel HUM101 Stem Cell Research...

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