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BSCI412-studyguideexam1 - Nucleic Acids Nucleotide(3 parts...

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Nucleic Acids Nucleotide (3 parts, covalently bound) - are the building blocks of all nucleic acids 1. nitrogen containing base - pyrimidine (1 ring) C, T, U heterolytic aromatic compound with 2 nitrogen atoms, is isomeric with 2 other diazine forms - purine (2 rings) A and G heterolytic aromatic compound with pyrimidine ring fused to imidazole ring 2. 5 carbon sugar - ribose or deoxyribose 3. Phosphate group Nitrogenous Base - organic compounds that owe their basic properties to the lone pair of electrons of a nitrogen atom - e.g. amines: ammonia, pyridine nucleobases: adenine, guanine, thymine, cytosine, uracil Nucleic Acids - a macromolecule composed of nucleotide chains - Others include PNA, LNA, GNA, TNA (all artificial) - Main: o DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) - contains genetic info for development and functioning - main role is long-term storage of info (set of blueprints) - contains instructions to construct other components of cells (such as proteins and RNAs) - always double stranded (double helix), which allows for only 1 function (storage) - 1000 to 1000000 times longer then RNA o RNA (ribonucleic acid) - important in process of translating genetic info from DNA into proteins - acts as messenger between DNA and protein synthesis complexes ribosomes, which form vital portions of ribosomes, and serves as essential carrier molecule for amino acids for protein synth - single stranded usually, allowing diverse range of functions - uses Uracil instead instead of Thymine - less stable since single strand cant repair itself - Nitrogenous bases include ACG in RNA and DNA, with T only in DNA and U only in RNA - nucleic acids synthesize in Phosphate-5’ 3’-OH
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- Nucleoside - a base linked to sugar (ribose or deoxyribose) ring Transcription Promoter - a regulatory region of DNA located upstream (towards 5’) of a gene, providing a control point for regulated gene transcription DNA is read in 3’ 5’, and synthesized in 5’ 3’ Is recognized by transcription factors that bind to promoter to being RNA synthesis
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