Nigeria Briefing Paper

1957 regional self government granted to the eastern

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Unformatted text preview: titution, establishing a federal system of government. 1957 Regional self-government granted to the eastern and western regions of Nigeria; devolution of political power from the British to Nigerians. 1959 Regional self-government granted to the northern region of Nigeria. The Independence Period: 1960 to Present 1960 Independence from Great Britain on October 1—“First Republic” is established as a parliamentary system of government with Sir Alhaji Abubakar Tafawa Balewa (Muslim Hausa-Fulani) as prime minister. 1963 Republican form of government established. 1966 Balewa is assassinated in a military coup, ending the “First Republic.” Johnson Aguyi-Ironsi (Christian Igbo) replaces Balewa. 1966 Ironsi is assassinated in a military coup. Yakubu Gowon (Christian from the “middle belt” of the country) replaces Ironsi. 1967 Three-year Biafran civil war begins on July 3. 1975 Gowon is overthrown in a military coup. Murtala Muhammed (Muslim Hausa-Fulani) replaces Gowon. 1976 Muhammed is assassinated in an abortive military coup. Olusegun Obasanjo (Christian Yoruba) replaces Muhammed. Nigeria Briefing Paper Copyright © 2005 by College Board. All rights reserved. Available at apcentral.collegeboard.com. 10 1979 Shehu Shagari (Muslim Hausa-Fulani) is democratically elected president, replacing Obasanjo and establishing the “Second Republic.” 1983 Shagari is overthrown in a military coup. Muhammed Buhari (Muslim Hausa Fulani) replaces Shagari, ending the “Second Republic.” 1985 Buhari is overthrown in a military coup. Ibrahim Babangida (Muslim from the “middle belt” of the country) replaces Buhari. 1993 Babangida is pressured to resign and accede to a caretaker government after annulled elections in 1993 (the aborted transition period has been categorized as the “Third Republic”). Ernest Shonekan (Christian Yoruba) is appointed as government caretaker. 1993 Sani Abacha (Muslim from the north of the country) replaces Shonekan in a military coup. 1998 Abacha dies suddenly. General Abdulsalami Abubakar assumes power, and he presides over a successful transition to democratic rule one year later. 1999 Start of the “Fourth Republic.” Former military leader Olusegun Obasanjo is democratically elected as president; he is reelected in 2003 to a second term. Historical Overview Precolonial Nigeria From the Iron Age technological advances discovered by the Nok to the great kingdoms Oyo, Songhai, the Hausa states, and Kanem Borno, Nigeria has a proud tradition that flourished long before the arrival of European explorers in the port city of Lagos. Between 900 BC and AD 200, the central region of Nigeria was dominated by the Nok, who discovered how to smelt iron and proceeded to establish this region as one of the richest and most advanced in Africa (and, for that matter, the world). When Muslim traders arrived in the region in AD 700, a series of culturally rich and Nigeria Briefing Paper Copyright © 2005 by College Board. All rights reserved. Available...
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This document was uploaded on 04/02/2013.

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