America; A Narrative History Study Guide Exam 2

America; A Narrative History Study Guide Exam 2 - America A...

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America: A Narrative History Study Guide Exam 2 The Revolution of 1800 and the War of 1812 In 1800, there were 5,300,000 people living in the United States, a fifth of whom were enslaved blacks. Land sales west of the Appalachian Mountains soared in the early 19 th century as aspiring farmers shoved Indians aside in order to establish homesteads of their own. Between 1800 and 1820 the trans-Appalachian population soared from 300,00 to 2 million. By 1840, over 40 percent of Americans lived west of the Appalachians in eight new states. Many enslaved Americans had gained their freedom during the Revolutionary War by escaping, joining the British forces, or serving in American military units. Every state except South Carolina and Georgia promised freedom to slaves who fought the British. In 1790, 9/10 Americans lived on the land and engaged in household rather than commercial production. While most Americas continued to work as farmers, a growing number found employment in fields such as; textiles, banking, transportation, publishing, retailing, teaching, preaching, medicine, law, construction, and engineering. On March 4, 1801 Thomas Jefferson became the first president to be inaugurated in the new national capital of Washington, D.C. Jefferson called his election the “Revolution of 1800”. He was the first president to pursue the role of party leader. In 1802, Congress repealed the Judiciary Act of 1801 and so abolished the circuit judgeships and other offices to which John Adams had made his “midnight appointments”. Jefferson detested Alexander Hamilton’s beliefs that a federal debt was a national “blessing” because it gave the bankers and investors who lent money to the gov’t a direct financial stake in the success of the new republic. Jefferson believed that a large federal debt would bring only high taxes and government corruption, so he reduced government expenses and paid debts. He also won the repeal of the whiskey tax. Jefferson’s commitment to “wise and frugal gov’t” allowed the United States to live within it’s income. The formula was to cut back on military expenses. In1807, Jefferson signed a landmark bill that outlawed the importation of slaves into the United States. The law took effect January 1, 1808. At the time South Carolina was the only state that still permitted the foreign slave trade. It had reopened in 1803. On the Barbury Coast of North Africa, the Islamic rulers of Morocco, Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli had been preying upon European and American merchant ships in the Mediterranean Sea. After the Revolution, Mediterranean pirates in corsairs (fast ships) captured American vessels and enslaved the crews. The US made blackmail payments to the countries. In 1801, Tripoli declared war on the US. US warships were sent to blockade Tripoli. The war ended in the year of 1805 after Lieutenant Stephen Decatur, set fire to the captured frigate Philadelphia in the year of 1804. The ruler of Tripoli settled for a $60,000 ransom and released the crew.
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