Chapters 1 & 2 - introduction and abnormality lecture - 1 per page - jan 8 2013

Chapters 1 & 2 - Introduction and Abnormality Lecture - 1 per page - Jan 8 2013
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(HMB342S) Tuesday, January 8, 2013 Introduction, and Abnormality (Chapters 1 & 2)
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Outline • Introduction to Epidemiology (Chapter 1) – questions addressed – fundamentals of epidemiologic methods – bias, confounding, and chance – validity and reliability • Abnormality (Chapter 2) – types of data – data variability and distributions – criteria for ‘abnormality’ – regression to the mean •S u m m a r y
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Introduction (Chapter 1) • Focus on clinically-applied epidemiology • A ‘basic science’ to better inform students, consumers, practitioners, and researchers of clinical care • The study of ‘the benefits of healthcare interventions in relation to their hazards and costs’ • Capable of addressing a wide range of clinically-relevant questions
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Clinical Questions (Table 1.2) • Is the person sick or well? (Chapter 2) • How well do diagnostic tests perform (Ch. 3) • How common is the disease? (Ch. 4) • What are the consequences of disease? (Ch. 7) • Does treatment change the course of disease? (Ch. 8) • Can we prevent the disease or its consequences? (Ch. 9) • What factors cause the disease to occur? (Ch. 11)
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Variables • The ‘building blocks’ of epidemiology • Measured or counted ‘attributes’ that vary • 3 kinds: Independent: exposure, cause, predictor, indicator Dependent: outcome, effect Co-variables: not directly under study, but may affect the relationship between the two above Cause Effect Co-variable
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Health Outcomes • The 6 D’s: – Death (especially if untimely) – Disease (or illness) – Discomfort (unwanted symptoms) – Disability (negative quality of life) – Dissatisfaction (emotional consequences) – Destitution (financial consequences)
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Epidemiologic ‘Foundations’ • A result of various study ‘phases’
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