Exam 2 Study Guide-2 - Term Definition Nile Cataracts...

Exam 2 Study Guide-2
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Term Definition Nile Cataracts Shallow lengths or white water rapids between Aswan and Khartoum where the surface of the water is broken by many rocks and boulders Aswan (Dam) Was the frontier town of ancient Egypt, far to the south. Believed Egypt began there as it was on the border of Egypt and Nubia, at the first cataract. The Dam was built in the 1800’s to stop the flooding that made the ancient civilization possible. Nubia Region of land upstream of the first cataract. Upper Egypt Upstream, farther South. Geographically defined by the region between the Nile delta and the first cataract. Narrow valley with desert on either side. Lower Egypt Downstream, in the north. Geographically defined by the Nile Delta-wide fertile area of land. Red Land/Black Land Red land was the barren desert on both sides of the Nile. Black land was the fertile land around the Nile. Rosetta Stone Found in 1799. Had three different scripts on it that enabled hieroglyphics to be deciphered. They were ancient Greek, Egyptian hieroglyphics and Demotic Script, a relatively younger ancient Egyptian script. It is now in the British Museum. Sarcophagus Canopic jars Jars used in the process of mummification to contain the organs (excepting the heart) of an embalmed body. Mastaba Structure that is thought to be the predecessor of the pyramids. Nomes Subdivisions and chiefdoms that Upper and Lower Egypt were divided into before unification. Narmer’s Palette Conveys the idea that the king controls all of Egypt and of someone who dominates his enemies.
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3 Crowns of Egypt Before ancient Egypt was unified, the ruler of Upper Egypt wore a white headdress and the ruler of Lower Egypt wore a red one. Around 2900 BC the ruler started wearing a double crown of red and white, combining the two headdresses. Old Kingdom c. 2680-2134 BC. PYRAMIDS. Characterized by territorial and divine kingship. Old Kingdom pharaohs used dramatic settings for their public appearances. Created the first “pyramid” in this time-Djoser’s step pyramid at Saqqara designed by the vizier Imhotep. Djoser ruled on earth as the son of Re, the sun god and changed the burial structure to represent his new ideology. He ascended the pyramid to join Re after his death. Imhotep used small armies of workers from every village to create the pyramid. Pyramid rose in six steps to over 60 meters with the faces oriented to the cardinal points. It was surrounded by a wall with a palace life facade over a mile in perimeter. There was a court in front of the pyramid which was the setting for royal appearances complete with ceremonial territorial markers, a throne platform and a token palace. After Djoser’s death, a new image of kingship emerged. The ruler became absorbed into the mystic symbol of the sun and the pharaoh became the sun god’s representative on earth. Snofru, the first Fourth Dynasty pharaoh, built three pyramids and bridged the transition from stepped to true pyramid design. His son Khufu built the Great Pyramid of Giza in 2528.
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