Chapter 1 - Introduction to Behavior Modification(2)Distinguish between behavior and products of behavior. Give an example of a behavior and a product of that behavior that are not in this chapter.Behavior is anything that a person says or does. The commonly used synonyms of behavior are “activity”, “action”, “performance”, “responding”, “response” and “reaction”.Technically behavior is any muscular, glandular or electrical activity of an organism.The products of behavior are the result which is caused by the behavior.Example:Practicing everyday for the dance competition is the behavior and winning the dance competition is the product of that behavior.(3)Distinguish between overt and covert behaviors. Give two examples of each that are not in this chapter.Overt behaviors can be observed and recorded by an individual other than the one performing the behavior. Example: Person doing push ups in gym.Runner running very fast in race. A covert behavior are behaviors which cannot be observed or recorded by an external individual such as imagining and self talk. covert behaviors are sometimesreferred to as cognitive behaviors.Example: Talking with self after getting bad marks in test in close room. Mentally motivating self before road test.Preparing answers in mind before interview. (5) Describe two dimensions of behavior. Give an example of each.Duration: The duration of a behavior is the length of time that it lasts.Example: Mahi worked out in a gym for 2 hours.
Rate: The rate of a behavior is the number of instances that occur in a given period of time.Example: Mahi cooked 3 dishes in just 1 hour. (7)What are two positive reasons that summary terms for behavior patterns are used frequently in psychology and in everyday life?1. They may be useful for quickly providing general information about how an individual might perform.2. The label may indicates that particular treatment program will be helpful. (8) What are two disadvantages of using summary labels to refer to individuals or their actions? Give an example of each.1. They may lead to pseudo explanations of behavior.Example: A child who inverts words while reading, such as “saw” for “was,” might be labeled as having dyslexia. If we ask why the child inverts words, and we are given the answer “Because he has dyslexia,” then the summary label for the behavior has been used as a pseudo-explanation for the behavior.2. A second disadvantage of labeling is that labels can negatively affect the way an individual might be treated, such as by focusing on an individual’s problem behaviors rather than strengths.Example: A teenager consistently fails to make his bed but reliably mows the lawn and places the garbage cans on the street on pickup days. If the parents describe their son as “lazy,” that label may cause them to focus more on the problem behavior than to praise the positive behaviors. In some societies, racial minorities have been given the negative label “lazy” even though they were the ones doing most of the hard, physical work.