ochem 1 lab final - Functional Groups a particular...

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Functional Groups: a particular arrangement of atoms that have predictable chemical and physical properties Alkane Aldehyde Alkene Ketone Alkyne Acid Aromatic Ester Alcohol Amide Ether Acid Halide 1˚ Amine Acid Anhydride 2˚ Amine Nitrile 3˚ Amine Nitro Carbonyl: Def: the C=O double bond Functional groups with carbonyl – * Aldehyde the name and reactivity of these * Ketone functional groups depends on * Carboxylic Acid the types of groups bonding to the * Ester carbonyl carbon atom * Amide * Acid Halide * Acid Anhydride
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Chemically Active Extraction: an extraction in which chemical reactions take place that change a molecule’s polarity so that it can be separated from a mixture Lab: Extraction of benzoic acid from a Mixture Liquid-liquid extraction: extraction of benzoic acid from a mixture Solid-liquid extraction: making coffee Polarity Organic compounds Inorganic Compounds -most non-polar - polar - covalent bonds - ionic bonding - neutral - charged Solubility - like dissolves like i.e. polar solvents dissolve polar compounds non-polar solvents dissolve non-polar compounds non-polar solvent: ether polar solvent: water Distribution Coefficient (K D ): For A (aq) A (org) K D = [A] (org) / [A] (aq) K D > 1; nonpolar, more soluble in organic solvent K D < 1; polar, more soluble in water K D = 1; equally soluble in both (bad system to be used for an extraction
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By changing polarity, change in K D value (from >1 to <1) NOTE: the extraction has to be with 2 solutions that do not mix together Examples: Extraction Schemes:
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Recrystallization: a purification process involving the removal of impurities from a solid compound, which is usually a product of an organic chemistry reaction Lab: Recrystallization of Benzoic Acid Crystal Lattice Theory - solids want to form a regular crystal lattice in which every spot in the lattice is occupied by the same compound - cooling down process needs to be slow because: If the crystal is allowed to grow slowly, it can be picky about what gets into the crystal lattice big crystals with the least amount of impurities * slow solubility change: letting a hot saturated solution cool slowly Solids are generally more soluble in hot solvents than in cold solvents - increase in kinetic energy - bonds break apart faster because more collisions between molecules (dissolve faster) Solubility Process 1) collision- solvent molecules must collide with the solid that is to be dissolved 2) dissociate- if the solvent molecules have enough kinetic energy, they will knock some of the solid molecules away from the rest of the solid 3) solvation- eventually all of the solid will be dissociated and surrounded by solvent
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