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world politics test 1

world politics test 1 - Chapter 1 Change and Continuity in...

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Chapter 1: Change and Continuity in International History Modern state system: the international state system characterized by a relatively small number of relatively large independent/sovereign political units. Though the modern state system is the result of several complex economic, religious, and military changes, a convenient date for its foundation is 1648, when the Thirty Years War ended with the Peace of Westphalia Thirty Years War: name given to a series of bloody and devastating wars fought largely on German lands between 1618 and 1648. Though several complex causes and motivations fueled these wars, the conflict between Protestants and Catholics over the authority of the Catholic Church and the pope was a central issue Peace of Westphalia: the agreement that officially closed the Thirty Years War. Significant in that marked the origins of modern principles of sovereignty Holy Roman Empire : the larger political entity that brought some political unity to medieval Europe under the authority of the pope and the Holy Roman Emperor Commercial revolution: the revival of trade and commerce as Europe began to emerge from the stagnation that characterized much of the period after the fall of Rome in 476 CE. This was one of the forces for the creation of larger and more centralized political units, one of the essential features of the modern state system Gunpowder revolution: the dramatic military, social, and political changes accompanying the introduction and development of gunpowder weapons in Europe, beginning in the fourteenth century, made previous means of defense less reliable and placed a premium on land and larger political units Protestant Reformation: Martin Luther’s challenge to the Catholic Church in 1517 marked the emergence of a non-Catholic version of Christianity. The growing conflict between Protestants and Catholics was one of the major contributing forces to the Thirty Years War Sovereignty: the right of individual states to determine for themselves the policies they will follow Absolutist monarchism: the political order prevailing in almost all of Europe before the French revolution in which kinds and queens claimed divine sources for their absolute rule and power unrestricted by laws or constitutions Divine Right of kings : the political principle underlying absolutist monarchism in which the legitimacy of rules was granted by God, not the people over whom leaders ruled French Revolution: the popular revolt against the French monarchy in 1789 that resulted in the establishment of the French Republic. Along with the American Revolution (1776), it marked the emergence of modern nationalism
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Popular sovereignty: the principle that governments must derive their legitimacy from the people over whom they rule. Embodied in the French and American Revolutions, this doctrine challenged the principle of the divine right of kings Napoleonic Wars: the French wars of European conquest following Napoleon’s rise to power. Demonstrated the potential impact of modern nationalism through total national
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