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Unformatted text preview: 1 Microbiology Unit III Exam Notes Enterococcus spp. (chapter 24) Biological Characteristics gram + cocci facultative anaerobe Where Found NF in gut (large intestine) and GU tract not in immunocompromised person feces of humans and animals Virulence Factors attach to mucus membrane produce bacteriocins very antibiotic resistant Special Characteristics grow in bile grow in 6.5% salt Conditions infections of blood and GU tract in hospitalized patients that received broad spectrum antibiotics intraabdominal abscesses wound infections Typical Host hospitalized patient Lab Information alpha/gamma hemolysis Common Species E. faecalis E. faecium Bacillus spp (chapter 25) Biological Characteristics gram + cocci forms endospores aerobic Where Found soil & dust mid-East, Persian Gulf, some USA Virulence Factors capsule – antibodies formed against capsule not protective 3 toxins : 1) protective factor 2) edema factor 3) lethal factor [need #1 + #2 or 3 for problems] Special Characteristics bamboo stick-like chains of cells produce “medusa head” formations protein capsules not beta hemolytic Conditions cutaneous anthrax inhalation anthrax GI anthrax Signs & Symptoms black , malignant pustule on red base – eschar – may heal or become systemic & fatal mimics viral respiratory illness – rapidly goes to pulmonary failure mesenteric adenopathy, hemorrhage, ascites high mortality rate Typical Host produces disease in grazing animals -- humans get bacteria by eating infected animals (or biological warfare) Lab Information non-hemolytic, grow rapidly, adherent “buzz” words “wool-sorters” disease Common Species B. Anthracis B. Cereus Bacillus cereus Biological Characteristics broad, spreading, irregular, ground glass-like colonies Where Found food Virulence Factors produce 2 enterotoxins when growing in food Special Characteristics spores germinate after initial cooking – preformed toxin in food toxin produced in gut after ingestion of food with spores – 2-- emetic form diarrheal form Conditions emetic form – in rice diarrheal form Signs & Symptoms nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramping – subside in 8-12 hours diarrhea – subside in 24 hours Lab Information short incubation period longer incubation period Corynebacterium spp. (chapter 26) Biological Characteristics club & small rod shaped tough cell wall – do not easily break after division “Chinese letters” , “Y”-shaped & “V” shaped & palisade Where Found NF on skin & mucus membranes of humans NF seen in cultures from throat & skin are reported as “diptheroids” when they are NOT C. diphtheriae poor urban areas with crowding Virulence Factors toxin gene – respiratory diphtheria...
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- Spring '08
- Escherichia coli, gram-negative bacteria, Virulence factors, Special Characteristics Conditions