Chapter 1 Notes - CHAPTER 1 THE SOCIOLOGICAL IMAGINATION...

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A History of Modern Psychology
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Chapter 9 / Exercise 17
A History of Modern Psychology
Schultz/Schultz
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CHAPTER1THE SOCIOLOGICAL IMAGINATION CHAPTER OUTLINEWHAT IS SOCIOLOGY?The Sociological ImaginationThe Hamburger as MiracleKey Components of SociologySociology and the Social SciencesSociology and Common SenseWHAT IS SOCIOLOGICAL THEORY?Formulating Sociological TheoriesTesting Sociological TheoriesApplying Sociological TheoriesTHE DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIOLOGYHow Is Social Order Maintained?How Do Power and Inequality Shape Outcomes?How Does Interaction Shape Our Worlds?How Does Group Membership Influence Opportunity?Do Sociologists Have a Responsibility to Pursue Social Change?PRACTICING SOCIOLOGYApplied SociologyClinical SociologyDEVELOPING A SOCIOLOGICAL IMAGINATIONIM-01 / 1
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A History of Modern Psychology
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Chapter 9 / Exercise 17
A History of Modern Psychology
Schultz/Schultz
Expert Verified
LEARNING OBJECTIVES1.Discuss the development of the sociological imagination.2.Define sociology as a social science.3.Describe the differences between sociology and common sense.4.Discuss the development of sociological theory.5.Identify the major sociological perspectives. 6.Compare and contrast functionalism, conflict theory, and interactionism.7.Describe the significance of social inequality.8.Discuss the connections between sociology and social policy throughout the world.CHAPTER SUMMARYSociologyis the systematic study of the relationship between the individual and society and of the consequences of difference. In attempting to understand social behavior, sociologists rely on a type of creative thinking referred to as the sociological imagination. C. Wright Mills described the sociological imagination as our ability to see the interaction between history and biography. One way to develop a sociological imagination is to view your own society as an outsider might. Sociology is considered a social science, which is quite broad in scope. Sociologists put their imagination to work in a variety of areas, including aging, criminal justice, the family, human ecology, and religion. Sociology focuses on the scientific study of human behavior and is different from common sense, which tends to be inaccurate and unreliable. Sociologists employ theories to examine the relationships between observations or data that may seem completely unrelated at first glance. Effective theory may have both explanatory and predictive powers. Early European theorists made pioneering contributions to the development of sociological theory. Auguste Comte (1798–1857) coined the term sociologyto apply to the science of society—the study of human behavior. Harriet Martineau (1802–1876) gave special attention to social class distinctions, such as gender and race. Émile Durkheim (1858–1917) focused on understanding behavior within a larger social context, not just in individualistic terms. Additionally, Durkheim suggested that religion reinforces group solidarity. Karl Marx (1818–1883) emphasized the significance of power and analysis of control over resources. For Marx, social inequality is determined by ownership, or lack thereof, of key material resources. Max Weber (1864–1920) argued that who has power was determined not only by social class

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