Chapter 5

Chapter 5 - Chapter 5 The Structure Function of Macromolecules I Macromolecules Their Structure Small organic molecules are joined together to form

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Small organic molecules are joined together to form carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.  These are known as macromolecules, representing another level in the hierarchy of biological  organization.  Polymers are large molecules formed from the linking together of many smaller or identical small  molecules called monomers.  Monomers are joined by condensation reactions (dehydration synthesis),  in which one monomer provides a hydroxyl and and the other contributes a hydrogen to form a water  molecule, and a covalent bond between the monomers is formed. Hydrolysis is the breaking of bonds between monomers through the addition of water molecules.  A  hydroxyl is joined to one monomer while hydrogen is bonded with the other.  Enzymes also control  hydrolysis. Carbohydrates include sugars and their polymers. Monosaccharides have the general formula of (CH 2 O) n .  The number of these units forming a sugar  varies from three to seven with hexases, trioses, and pentoses found most commonly.  A sugar can be  an aldose or a ketose depending on the location of the carbonyl group.  Additional diversity is provided  by the spatial arrangement of parts around asymmetric carbons.  These small structural differences  affect the recognition and interaction of molecules within cells.  Glucose is broken down to yield 
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course BIO 110 taught by Professor Moon during the Fall '08 term at Union.

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Chapter 5 - Chapter 5 The Structure Function of Macromolecules I Macromolecules Their Structure Small organic molecules are joined together to form

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