CVP Final Exam - 1 CVP Final Exam Study Notes: Pulmonary...

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1 CVP Final Exam Study Notes: Pulmonary Physiology: respiratory neurons in brain stem sets drive of ventilation descending neural traffic to spinal cord activation of muscles of respiration ventilation of alveoli coupled with perfusion of pulmonary capillaries Respiratory Centers: in the brain stem set the basic drive of ventilation descending neural traffic to the spinal cord ventilation of alveoli coupled with perfusion of pulmonary capillaries influenced by: higher brain centers peripheral mechanoreceptors peripheral & central chemoreceptors
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2 Muscles of Ventilation: inspiratory muscles       active – requires muscle contraction increase thoracic cage volume uses 3% of total body energy diaphragm drops floor of thoracic cage external intercostals SCM scaleni levator costarum expiratory muscles       passive – can be active in forced expiration passive is associated with recoil of the lungs decrease thoracic cage volume abdominals internal intercostals posterior inferior serratus transverse thoracis pyramidal Movement of air in and out of lungs: pleural pressure alveolar pressure subatmospheric during inspiration supra-atmospheric during expiration transpulmonary pressure measure of the recoil tendency of the lung peaks at the end of inspiration Compliance of the lung: change of volume / change in pressure onset of inspiration causes the pleural pressure to change faster than lung compliance    hysteresis air filled lung versus saline filled lung: easier to inflate a saline filled lung than an air filled lung because surface tension forces have been eliminated in the saline filled lung T = Pr/2   “Law of Laplace” T = surface tension P = collapse pressure inside alveoli R = radius of alveoli P = 2T/r at a given surface tension   as radius increases, collapse decreases Pleural Relationship—Lung & Chest Wall Forces:
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3 if all respiratory muscles are relaxed (at the end of normal expiration)  LRF = CWF during inspiration   increased thoracic cage volume, alveolar P < atmospheric P (air flows into lung)
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CVP Final Exam - 1 CVP Final Exam Study Notes: Pulmonary...

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