NP Final - 1 Neurophysiology Final Exam Notes Chapter 59:...

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1 Neurophysiology Final Exam Notes Chapter 59: States of Brain Activity Sleep; Brain Waves; Epilepsy; Psychoses Sleep: defined as state of unconsciousness from which one can be aroused by sensory stimulation 2 different types of sleep  slow wave sleep rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep Slow wave sleep  deep, restful sleep decreased peripheral vascular tone, blood pressure, respiratory rate, metabolic rate dreams are not remembered REM sleep  paradoxical sleep  if overly tired   REM may be absent but returns with rest features: dreams can be remembered waken during REM sleep in the morning difficult to arouse one in REM sleep otherwise muscle tone is very depressed muscle contractions occur – especially rapid eye movements brain metabolism is increased by ~ 20% EEG shows brain waves similar to the waking state Basic Theories of Sleep passive theory of sleep was the first theory   sleep occurred when reticular activating system fatigued theory was changed during animal studies of transection of brain stem at mid-pontine levels – animal never slept now believed   sleep caused by active mechanism that inhibits other parts of the brain Mechanisms that Cause Sleep sleep occurs by stimulating one of three brain locations    most potent site many of these neurons use serotonin as a transmitter drugs that block formation of serotonin prevent sleep stimulation of the nucleus of the solitary tract promotes sleep this occurs if the raphe nuclei are functional suprachiasmatic level of hypothalamus  midline of the thalamus   some studies show that blood levels of serotonin are lower during sleep that wakefullness – some other substance must be responsible for sleep production muramyl peptide   microgram amounts are injected into the 3 rd  ventricle   sleep occurs within minutes REM is enhanced by cholinergic agonists some projections of cholinergic neurons of midbrain reticular formation may be responsible for REM initiation activating system Physiological Effects of Sleep absence of sleep   sluggishness of thought, irritability, psychotic behavior sleep restores normal balances of activity in many parts of the brain – from high intellectual centers of cortex to vegetative & behavioral functions of 
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course ADVANCED N 301 taught by Professor Freedman during the Spring '08 term at Palmer Chiropractic.

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NP Final - 1 Neurophysiology Final Exam Notes Chapter 59:...

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