Organ Hist, Unit 2 - 1 Organ Histology Unit II Study Guide...

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1 Organ Histology Unit II Study Guide Chapter 5 – Skeletal Tissue: Cartilage: functions: support weaker than bone lighter and more flexible than bone metabolically easier to maintain than bone smooth articular surface at synovial joints template for bone growth general characteristics: specialized connective tissue (has solid matrix) very rare avascular connective tissue surrounded by bi-layered membrane   perichondrium  provides vascularization & growth potential has some healing  3 types: hyaline elastic fibrocartilage fibers collagen II collagen II & elastic collagen II perichondrium yes- usually yes no examples nasal septum, tracheal & bronchial  rings,  articular ends of bone,  ventral ends of ribs, most of larynx external auditory tube & pinna,  epiglottis, cuneiform of larynx pubic symphysis, annulus fibrosis  of IVD, major attachment of  ligaments & tendons to bone, knee  menisci minor differences between elastic & hyaline cartilage: elastic cartilage has greater number of cells chondrocytes are larger in elastic cartilage less matrix in elastic cartilage components of hyaline and elastic cartilage: matrix: ground substance -- ~ 50% matrix by weight avascular – cells rely on nutrition by diffusion ground substance must have high percentage of water (65-80%) for: nutrition by diffusion slight flexibility water is maintained by hyaluronic acid (HA) [non-sulfated GAG] for softness has high affinity for water matrix supported by proteoglycan aggregate containing: [provides rigidity] chondroitin sulfate keratin sulfate heparin sulfate fibers: hyaline cartilage has collagen II fibers in the matrix smaller & weaker than collagen I – unable to be seen in light microscopy elastic cartilage has both collagen II and elastic fibers
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2 elastic fibers give additional flexibility but not stretch elastic fibers stain black and are parallel to the perichondrium cells: chondroblast: differentiate from: mesenchyme cells fibroblasts chondrogenic cells structural cell of cartilage actively produce matrix during growth & development exist in extended resting phases as reserve cell between periods of growth thrives in low oxygen environment     small, oval, stains very dark can not divide     chondrogenic cells: very narrow shaped cells derived from mesenchyme cells found in the chondrogenic perichondrium can differentiate into: chondroblasts (requires low oxygen) osteoprogenitor cells (requires high oxygen) can divide chondrocyte: from chondroblasts
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