Endocrine unit 2 objectives

Endocrine unit 2 - 1 Endocrinology Exam II Objectives Be prepared to list or identify eight different factors 4 must be hormonal concentrations

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1 Endocrinology Exam II Objectives 1. Be prepared to list or identify eight different factors – 4 must be hormonal concentrations that could be the direct cause of osteoporosis / osteopenia / bone demineralization. (Guyton, Lecture notes) non-hormonal (Guyton) hormonal (lecture notes) lack of physical stress on bones due to inactivity decreased calcitonin (TCT) malnutrition decreased Vitamin D lack of Vitamin C decreased parathormone (PTH) postmenopausal lack of estrogen secretion decreased calcium old age (growth hormones diminish) renal hyperparathyroidism Cushing’s syndrome (glucocorticoids decrease protein deposition and increase protein catabolism) hypoparathyroidism pseudohypoparathyroidism (Types A and B) 2. Be prepared to identify or list the following concerning the thyroid functional tests: name of the test, test results, condition indicated Condition/Disease Name of Test Test Result Goiter – toxic T4 increase or decrease TSH increased -- nontoxic T4 normal TSH increased Hyperthyroidism T4 increased TSH decreased Grave’s disease T4 increased TSH decreased Hypothyroidism T3 decreased T4 decreased Cretinism T4 decreased TSH increased (with primary) Myxedema T4 decreased Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis -- acute T4 decreased ** thyroxin level may vary ** -- chronic T4 decreased Thyroglobulin Antibody high (early) Thyroid Neoplasm malignant – medullary carcinoma calcitonin increased T4 normal calcium decreased 3. Be prepared to identify or list the site(s) of synthesis, functions, and means by which all of the functions of all of the hormones listed are performed. see additional pages – graphs 4. Be prepared to identify or explain thyroxin influence on each of the following and the means listed. see additional pages – graphs 5. Be prepared to identify or explain the specific function of the following enzymes: MAO, COMT, 1-Hydroxylase, Angiotensin Converting Enzyme, and Renin. Enzyme Function MAO -- monoamine oxidase catabolizes neurotransmitters – decreases
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2 hyperactivity COMT – catachomethyl transferase catabolizes neurotransmitters – decreases hyperactivity 1-Hydroxylase activates 25(OH)-D3 to 1,25(OH)2-D3 (Vitamin D) Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) acts on Angiotensin I – converts it to Angiotensin II Renin acts on angiotensinogen – converts it to Angiotensin I 6. Identify or list the classification and etiology of goiters. Production of Thyroxin Shape toxic --- increase or decrease of thyroxin diffuse --- evenly enlarged colloid – (non-toxic) ---- normal thyroxin nodal (nodular) --- unevenly enlarged goiter only develops with over-stimulation of thyroid gland – increased TSH, increased T4, LATS most common – decreased T4 from increased iodine (increased TSH, increased TRF) 7. Be prepared to identify the main hormonal concentration(s) of all of the syndromes listed, plus the physical characteristics of the thyroid disorders. Syndrome
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course ENDOCRINE 201 taught by Professor N during the Spring '08 term at Palmer Chiropractic.

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Endocrine unit 2 - 1 Endocrinology Exam II Objectives Be prepared to list or identify eight different factors 4 must be hormonal concentrations

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