Gross II unit 4 - 1 Gross Anatomy II Final Exam Study Guide...

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1 Gross Anatomy II Final Exam Study Guide KIDNEY: functions – remove water, salts, and products of protein metabolism from the blood bean shaped retroperitoneal organ – extends from L1-L4 (most posterior organ) right kidney is slightly lower than the left anterior to the psoas major, lateral to the vertebral column within the paravertebral grooves (gutters) surfaces – anterior, posterior borders – medial, lateral poles – upper, lower hilum: vertical fissure located on the medial surface structures: ureter – posteriorly renal vein – anteriorly renal artery – in between autonomic and sensory nerves renal pelvis – expanded end of ureter within the hilum renal sinus – space located within the hilum – filled with fat renal pedicle – collective term for the structures that enter the hilum internal structures: renal cortex – outer portion renal columns – projections of the cortex into the medulla between the renal pyramids renal medulla – inner portion renal pyramid – terminates in an apex known as the renal papillae minor calyces – cup shaped structures that house the renal papillae major calyces – 2-3 major channels that drain the minor calyces – empty into the renal pelvis renal pelvis – funnel shaped blood vessels: artery – renal artery – from abdominal aorta vein – renal vein – drains into the IVC left renal vein drains an extensive area – left kidney, suprarenal gland, gonad, diaphragm, and body wall Compression Syndrome (Anatomical Nutcracker) left renal vein and 3 rd part of duodenum may be compressed between the aorta behind and the superior mesenteric artery in front causes: compressive trauma in abdomen cast syndrome – body cast too tight – increases lumbar lordosis and pushes aorta forward abdominal aortic aneurysm symptoms: reduced urine flow left kidney pain emesis nerve supply: aorticorenal plexus – extension of celiac plexus intermesenteric plexus direct branches from thoracic and lumbar splanchnic nerves layers covering the kidney: renal capsule – innermost layer perirenal fat renal fascia – membranous layer of extraperitoneal tissue that splits to enclose the kidney pararenal fat – outermost layer renal calculi: ureteric calculi may be composed of 1-3 things: calcium oxalate calcium phosphate
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2 uric acid symptoms: dull ache when in kidney severe pain when entering ureter may be lodged in 1 of 3 constrictions in ureter – restricts urinary flow causes: low fluid intake more common in males, in southeast USA treatment: ESWL – extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (for calcium stones) Hypermobile (Floating) Kidney: organ moves up or down within the renal fascia – may descend into the pelvis may turn upside down – kink vessels and ureter
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Gross II unit 4 - 1 Gross Anatomy II Final Exam Study Guide...

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