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Unformatted text preview: 1 Cellular Physiology Final Exam Review (Chapters 9, 10, 11) 1. Distinguish between rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Describe their functions . rough endoplasmic reticulum smooth endoplasmic reticulum flattened sheets tubular studded with ribosomes on outer surface has no ribosomes ribophorin – binds ribosome with ER membrane functions: transitional elements – form transition vesicles – shuttle proteins & lipids from ER to Golgi complex lipid biosynthesis – cholesterol, steroids, bile acids found in secretory cells – plasma cells, fibroblast cells, pancreatic cells detoxification – make toxic materials water-soluble functions: blood glucose regulation – glycogenolysis storage, segregation, and transport of proteins glycoprotein synthesis quality control calcium storage in excitable cells (sarcoplasmic reticulum) 2. Describe the ultrastructure of Golgi complex and its role in cell secretion. Include the cis and trans faces of Golgi and their functions. Discuss the role of transition vesicles, and anterograde and retrograde transports. Which proteins are involved in the traffic between secretory vesicles and the target membrane? ultrastructure of Golgi complex: stacks of flattened membranous sacs piled on each other and continuous with each other 3-8 cisternae/cell surrounded by small vesicles function is to direct macromolecular traffic roll in cell secretion: process by which the cells synthesize & release products digestive enzymes – pancreatic exocrine cells, salivary gland cells hormones – endocrine cells neurotransmitters – neurons antibodies – plasma cells process of secretion : condensation – 20-25% concentration by water loss glycosylation – addition of carbohydrates to proteins using glycosyl transferase deletion – deleting parts of the polypeptide chain packaging – wrapping of the membrane around the secretory product to form the secretory vesicles formation of other organelles – concentration and wraps certain enzymes into separate organelles à lysosomes, peroxisomes, glycoxisomes cis face and function: forming face proteins from the lumen and membranes of the transitional elements of the ER are transferred to the lumen & membranes of the Golgi cisternae by transition vesicles the proteins are covalently modified by removal & addition of sugar residues by N-acetylglucosamine transferase trans face and function: proteins are exported form the Golgi near the trans face sorting of the proteins is mediated by the clathrin-coated vesicles that surround the cisternae transition vesicles: transfer proteins from the lumen and membranes of the transitional elements of the ER to the lumen & membranes of the Golgi cisternae anterograde transports: transport of materials from the ER thru the Golgi complex toward the cell membrane retrograde transports: recycling of lipids & proteins & the excess membrane of the empty vesicles...
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- Spring '08