Biochem unit 1 competencies

Biochem unit 1 competencies - 1 Biochemistry II Exam I...

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1 Biochemistry II – Exam I Energy Systems Overview KNOWLEDGE 1. ATP is: Ÿ the universal energy currency 2. State the 3 macronutrients: Ÿ carbohydrates, fats, protein 3. Identify the 3 energy systems that create ATP. Ÿ ATP-PC system (phosphagen system) Ÿ anaerobic glycolysis Ÿ aerobic system 4. Identify the locations of the 3 energy systems. Ÿ ATP-PC à cytoplasm Ÿ anaerobic glycolysis à cytoplasm Ÿ aerobic system à mitochondria 5. Explain/Contrast how ATP is created in each energy system. Ÿ ATP-PC à high levels of ADP stimulates creatine kinase – transfers an inorganic phosphate from ADP to ATP from creatine phosphate, uses no intermediates Ÿ Anaerobic glycolysis à glucose is phosphorylated, creates pyruvate that becomes lactate, utilizes NAD+ and NADH+ Ÿ Aerobic system à glycolysis to pyruvate into the citric acid cycles, becomes oxidized with extra NADH and FADH2 6. Identify regulators of each system (facilitators/inhibitors). Ÿ ATP-PC à low ATP is facilitator, high ATP is inhibitor Ÿ Anaerobic à lactate is inhibitor, ATP is regulator Ÿ Aerobic à PFK is rate limiting; stimulated by – high ammonia, high inorganic phosphate, high ADP, AMP and low pH; inhibited by – very low pH, high ATP, high creatine phosphate, high citrate, high free fatty acids. 7. Define “reduced compound”. Ÿ A molecule that contains extra electrons 8. Explain the role of reduced compounds in the creation of ATP. Ÿ Utilized in the electron transport system to pass electrons along, create a proton gradient, to synthesize ATP 9. Contrast aerobic and anaerobic metabolism. Aerobic Anaerobic Uses oxygen Does not use oxygen Occurs in mitochondria Occurs in cytoplasm Makes much more ATP, but slower Makes less ATP, but faster Carbohydrate, fat, and protein Carbohydrates mainly Uses ETS Produces lactic acid Creates proton gradient 10. Explain the circumstance in which each system would predominate. Ÿ
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course BIOCHEM 201 taught by Professor H during the Spring '08 term at Palmer Chiropractic.

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Biochem unit 1 competencies - 1 Biochemistry II Exam I...

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