Biochem unit 1 notes - 1 Biochemistry II Unit 1 Study Notes...

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1 Biochemistry II Unit 1 Study Notes ENERGY SYSTEMS OVERVIEW: Ÿ ATP is the universal energy currency Ÿ Identify 3 energy systems Ÿ Identify the location of energy systems Ÿ Differentiate aerobic vs. anaerobic Ÿ Recognize when each system predominates Ÿ Identify fuel sources for each system ATP: Ÿ Has high energy bonds between the phosphate groups ENZYMES: Ÿ ATP is broken down to ADP via the enzyme Myosin ATPase Ÿ ADP can be further broken down to AMP via the enzyme Myokinase THE 3 SYSTEMS TO MAKE ATP: { guaranteed to be first question on first exam } Ÿ ATP-PC system -- phosphagen system Ÿ Anaerobic glycolysis Ÿ Aerobic system ATP-PC SYSTEM: Ÿ Coupled reaction Ÿ Fast replacement of ATP Ÿ Short duration (5-10 seconds) Ÿ Predominates in short explosive activity Ÿ Phosphagen facts:     Ÿ The enzyme that catalyzes the reaction is creatine kinase Ÿ Fast twitch (type 2) muscle fibers contain higher concentrations of phosphagens than slow twitch  (type 1) muscle fibers Ÿ Control of the Phosphagen System:     Ÿ Creatine kinase controls the breakdown of creatine phosphate Ÿ High ADP stimulates creatine kinase Ÿ AMP is a powerful stimulant of creatine kinase Ÿ High ATP inhibits creatine kinase Ÿ Products regulate Pathways     Ÿ When a person discontinues exercise, or exercise is continued at decreased intensity, ATP can be supplied  by glycolysis or by the aerobic system.
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2 ANAEROBIC GLYCOLYSIS: Ÿ Anaerobic implies without oxygen Ÿ Cytolysis implies carbohydrate breakdown Ÿ Glycolysis is sometimes broken down into: Ÿ Fast glycolysis Ÿ pyruvate is converted to lactic acid Ÿ Slow glycolysis Ÿ pyruvate is transported to the mitochondria for use in the aerobic system Ÿ Linked to the aerobic system GLYCOLYSIS: -- anaerobic Ÿ Reduced compounds Ÿ NADH and /or FADH2 Ÿ Has extra electrons Ÿ PFK -- rate limiting enzyme (Phosphofructokinase) Ÿ Fast twitch fibers have higher concentrations of glycolytic enzymes than slow twitch fibers CONTROL OF GLYCOLYSIS: Stimulated by: Inhibited by: High ammonia Marked decreased pH High inorganic phosphate High ATP levels High ADP High creatine phosphate High AMP (very +) High citrate Slightly decreased pH High free fatty acids Ÿ Whether lactic acid is made or pyruvate is sent to the aerobic system depends on the person’s aerobic  system and the level of exercise performed. AEROBIC SYSTEM: Ÿ 2 components: Ÿ Krebs cycle -- citric acid cycle Ÿ Electron transport system Ÿ Carbohydrate, fat, and protein can be metabolized in this system to produce ATP
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3 6 carbons 5 carbons 4 Carbons 4 Carbons Acetyl CO2 CO2 Some ATP reduced compounds REDUCED COMPOUNDS: Ÿ Molecules that contain an extra electron
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course BIOCHEM 201 taught by Professor H during the Spring '08 term at Palmer Chiropractic.

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Biochem unit 1 notes - 1 Biochemistry II Unit 1 Study Notes...

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