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Unformatted text preview: 1 Biochemistry II Exam III Study Guide Gluconeogenesis : knowledge: State the location of gluconeogenesis. in liver Be able to identify the main entry points into the pathway. pyruvate, oxaloacetic acid, DHAP Be able to identify the main non-carbohydrate precursors to the pathway. lactic acid, amino acid, glycerol Identify tissues that require glucose for metabolism. brain, RBC, testes, medulla of kidney, cornea of the eye, muscle -- during high intensity exercise Contrast Gibbs Free Energy for glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. Gibbs free energy for glycolysis -- negative Gibbs free energy for gluconeogenesis negative Identify the key enzymes in gluconeogenesis -- pyruvate carboxylase, PEP carboxylase, glucose 6 phosphates, fructose 1,6 bisphosphatase State the location of pyruvate carboxylase (tissue) in the mitochondria of the liver and kidney it is NOT in the muscle 2 Contrast the enzymes of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. Glycolysis Gluconeogenesis hexokinase/glucokinase pyruvate carboxylase phosphoglucoisomerase phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase phosphofructokinase phosphoglycerate kinase fructose bisphosphate aldolase fructose-1,6- bisphosphatase triose phosphate isomerase glucose-6-phosphatase D-glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase phosphoglycerate kinase phosphoglycerate mutase enolase pyruvate kinase Explain the role of Oxaloacetate and Malate in gluconeogenesis. oxaloacetate -- important intermediate in both the TCA cycle and gluconeogenesis -- made from pyruvate direct precursor to PEP malate -- OAA is converted to malate in the mitochondria since oxaloacetate can not be transported directly across the mitochondria membrane Identify the substrates for gluconeogenesis (lactate, glycerol, alpha ketoacids) lactic acid -- waste glycerol -- triglycerides alpha-ketoacids -- pyruvate, OAA, alpha-ketoglutarate Starting with pyruvate, state the relative energetic cost of creating glucose. net free energy charge for pyruvate glucose = -20 kcal/mol 6 ATPs used Recognize common ketone bodies. acetoacetate beta-hydroxybutyrate acetone Explain why ketone bodies are created. too much acetyl CoA is created during high fatty acid oxidation this exceed the capacity of the TCA cycle ketone bodies created Contrast the roles of insulin and glucagon in gluconeogenesis....
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course BIOCHEM 201 taught by Professor H during the Spring '08 term at Palmer Chiropractic.
- Spring '08