Signal Processing and Linear Systems-B.P.Lathi copy

T his point is eiwt i n s ummary t o c ompute t he

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Unformatted text preview: cursive are easily understood in terms of a specific example. Consider a t hird-order system with t he t ransfer function (12.23) T he i nput J[k] a nd t he c orresponding o utput y[k] of this system are related by t he difference equation. y[k] + a2y[k - 1] + aIy[k - 2] + aoy[k - 3] = (b) b3I[k] + b2I[k - 1] + b d[k - 2] + boI[k - 3] (12.24a) or o .lL y[k] It 2 o = :-a2y[k - 1] - aIY~k - 2] - aoy[k - 31 o utput t erms + ?3I[k] + b2f[k - 1] + b d[k - 2] + boI[k - lOOOlt 500!t 31 (12.24b) i nput t erms ¥tY ~lay lIfi!; hIlS (c) F ig. 12.6 Designing a notch (bandstop) filter in Example 12.3. Figure 12.6b shows IH[ejwTll for values of a = 0.3,0.6, and 0.95. Figure 12.6c shows a realization of this filter. • f:,. E xercise E 12.3 U sing t he g raphical argument, show t hat a filter w ith t ransfer f unction H[z] = z - 0.9 z a cts a s a h ighpass filter. Make a r ough s ketch o f t he a mplitude r esponse. 'V Here y[k], t he o utput a t i nstant k, is determined b y t he i nput values I[k], I[k - 1], I[k - 2], a nd I[k - 3] as well as by t he p ast o utput values y[k - 1], y[k - 2], a nd y[k - 3]. T he o utput is therefore determined iteratively or recursively from t he i ts p ast values. To compute t he p resent o utput of this third-order system, we use t he p ast t hree values o f t he o utput. In general, for a n n th-order system we use t he p ast n values of t he o utput. S uch a s ystem is called a r ecursive s ystem. An interesting feature of a recursive system is t hat once a n o utput exists, i t t ends t o p ropagate itself forever because of its recursive nature. This is also seen from t he c anonical realization of H[z] in Fig. 12.7a. Once a n i nput (any input) is applied, t he feedback connections loop t he o utput continuously back into t he system, a nd t he o utput continues forever. This propagation of t he o utput in perpetuity occurs because o f t he nonzero values of coefficients ao, a lo a2, . .. , a n-I· T hese coefficients [appearing in t he d enominator of H[z] in Eq. (12.23)] are t he r ecursive c oefficients. T he coefficients bo, b l, b2, . .. , bn ( appearing in t he n umerator of H [z]) a re t he n onrecursive c oefficients. I f a n i nput 8[k] is applied a t t he i nput of a recursive filter, t he response h[k] will continue forever up to k = 0 0. For this reason, recursive filters are also known as i nfinite i mpulse r esponse ( IIR) filters. 730 12 Frequency Response a nd Digital Filters 1 731 12.4 Filter Design Criteria system, t he i nput will pass t hrough t he s ystem a nd will be completely o ut o f t he s ystem by k = 4. T here a re no feedback connections t o p erpetuate t he o utput. Therefore, h[k] will be nonzero only for k = 0, 1, 2, a nd 3. F or a n n th-order nonrecursive filter, h[k] is zero for k > n . Therefore, t he d uration o f h[k] is finite for a nonrecursive filter. For this reason, nonrecursive filters are also known as f inite i mpulse r esponse ( FIR) filters. Nonrecursive filters are a special case of recursive filters, in which all t he recursive coefficients a o, a l, a 2, . .. , a n-l a re zero. A n n th-or...
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