Cell Structure - Cell Structure- Eukaryotic Cells I. A....

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Cell Structure- Eukaryotic Cells
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I. A. Nucleus- control center, most DNA is located here 1. Nuclear envelope (membrane) a. 2 concentric layers (bilayer)
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b. space between layers: “lumen” c. nucleoplasm- separated by nuclear membrane from cytoplasm d. nuclear lamina- structural proteins just inside nuclear membrane, like cytoskeleton, proteins 2. Nuclear pores are lamins a. DNA → RNA and pores are necessary to let RNA out 3. DNA- Chromatin (uncoiled) a. chromosomes *humans have 46 b. during meiosis chromatin coils into chromosomes 4. Nucleolus a. ribosome synthesis (r-RNA) B. Internal Membrane System (Cytomembrane System) 1. Endoplasmic Reticulum
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a. membranous, between membranes- lumen b. outer membrane of nucleus is continuous with the membrane of Endoplasmic Reticulum c. Lumens from nuclear and Endoplasmic Reticulum are in contact which allows for communication d. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER) - ribosomes on surface - look like flattened sacs - function: protein synthesis - organs that make a lot of proteins have a lot of RER is pancreas (insulin), digestive enzymes e. Smooth ER - no ribosomes on surface - tubular - lipid metabolism
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i. fatty acids ii. Phospholipids iii. Steroids iv. Cholesterol - located in organs like sex organs, liver has a lot - metabolizes i. Carbohydrates ii. Glycogen - detoxifying enzymes i. Carcinogens 2. Golgi complex
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a. stacks of flattened membranous sacs b. c. Modifies proteins, lipids, Carbohydrates, before sending it out d. e. Receives materials from ER 3. Vesicles a. membranous sacs b. transport vesicles- sends package from ER to Golgi c. exocitic vesicles- takes “package” from Golgi to cell membrane & fuses with the membrane, then it opens and lets package out Ex) mucus d. endocitic vesicle- phagocytosis (endocytosis): brings something into the cell membrane and transports it in. 4. Lysosomes- contains ~ 40 digestive enzymes (hydrolytic), can’t release or else they would digest the cell (animals only) a. phagocytosis- lysosome should fuse with bacteria and the bacteria gets digested b. autophagy- cells digest own organelles for energy when malnourished c. cell death
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- necrosis- tissue damage, resulting in cell death - apoptosis- programmed cell death, genes tell cells to die (shorter life span, less chance of mutation) d. metamorphosis- Ex) tadpoles tails need to come off e. rheumatoid arthritis- lysosomes operate too well and digest good cells as well as damaged cells C. Vacuoles- plants only - structure called vacuole - vacuolar membrane- tonoplast - vacuoles- grows as cell grows - up to 90% 1. function a. metabolic sink- waste products, sugar, small proteins, pigments
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Cell Structure - Cell Structure- Eukaryotic Cells I. A....

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