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Chapter 21 The Immune System BB Version

Figure 215 step 5 complement complement complement

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Unformatted text preview: ment): 20 plasma proteins that circulate inactive C1-C9, B, D, and P Destroy foreign substances in the body by Destroy amplifying the inflammation process amplifying Kill bacteria by lysis Classical pathway Antigen-antibody complex + complex Opsonization: coats pathogen surfaces, which enhances phagocytosis Insertion of MAC and cell lysis (holes in target cell’s membrane) Alternative pathway Spontaneous activation + Stabilizing factors (B, D, and P) + No inhibitors on pathogen surface Enhances inflammation: stimulates histamine release, increases blood vessel permeability, attracts phagocytes by chemotaxis, etc. Pore Complement proteins (C5b–C9) Membrane of target cell Figure 21.6 Fever, the final non-specific defense Fever, An abnormally high temperature The internal temperature thermostat can The be reset (from 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit) using chemicals called pyrogens using Secreted by leukocytes and macrophages Secreted upon exposure to bacteria upon Benefits of Fever Benefits Obviously, increased temperature kills Obviously, bacteria, as they are unable to thermoregulate thermoregulate Bacteria require iron and zinc to multiply, Bacteria which are sequestered by the liver and spleen during fevers spleen Fever also speeds repair (by lowering the Fever EA of enzyme activity) EA Adaptive defenses of the immune system system A functional system that is specific to functional pathogens (antigens) pathogens Immobilizes, neutralizes, or destroys the Immobilizes, antigen an...
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