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Unformatted text preview: er and preachers (al-qussas wa'lwa'izun), whose urge for popularity through arousing an emotional response in their audience led them to indulge in forgery. They made up stories and attributed them to the Prophet. It is reported that once a story-teller cited a Hadith to an audience in the mosque on the authority of Ahmad b. Hanbal and Yahya b. Ma'in which runs as follows: 'Whoever says 'there is no God but Allah', Allah will reward him, for each word uttered, with a bird in Paradise, with a beak of gold and feathers of pearls.' At the end of his sermon, the speaker was confronted by Ahmad b. Hanbal and Yahya b Ma'in who were present on the occasion and told the speaker that they had never related any Hadith of this kind. Azami, Studies, p. 69; Hitu, Wajiz, p. 291.] [91. Siba'i, Al-Sunnah, pp. 86-87; Juristic and theological differences constitute another theme of forgery in Hadith. This is illustrated by the following statement attributed to the Prophet: 'Whoever raises his hands during the performance of salah, his salah is null and void.' In yet another statement, we read: 'Whoever says that the Qur'an is the created speech of God becomes an infidel [...] and his wife stands divorced from him as of that moment.' Another category of fabricated Hadith is associated with the religious zeal of individuals whose devotion to Islam led them to the careless ascription of Hadith to the Prophet. This is illustrated by the forgeries committed by one Nuh b. Abu Maryam on the virtues of the various suras of the Qur'an. He is said to have later regretted what he did and explained that he fabricated such Hadith because he saw people who were turning away from the Qur'an and occupying themselves with the fiqh of Abu Hanifah and the battle stories of Muhammad b. Ishaq. Numerous other names occur in the relevant literature, including those of Ghulam Khalil and Ibn Abi 'Ayyash of Baghdad, who were both known as pious individuals, but who invented Hadith on the virtues of certain words of praise (adhkar wa-awrad) and other devotional matters. [92. Siba'i, Al-Sunnah, pp. 86-87; Azami, Studies, p. 69; Hitu, Wajiz, p. 291.] Without wishing to go into details, other themes on which Hadith forgery has taken place included the urge on the part of courtiers who distorted an existing Hadith so as to please and flatter their overlords. Similarly, the desire to establish the permissibility or virtue of certain varieties of food, beverages, clothes and customary practices led individuals to introduce exaggerations and arbitrary changes in the Hadith. [93. See for details Siba'i, Al-Sunnah, p. 88; Hitu, Wajiz, p. 291.] Classification and Value: II Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence ~ Kamali 68 From the viewpoint of the continuity and completeness of their chains of transmitters, the Hadith are once again classified into two categories: continuous (muttasil) and discontinued (ghayr muttasil). A continuous Hadith is one which has a complete chain of transmission from the last narrator all the way back to the prophet. A discontinued Hadith, also known as Mursal, is a Hadith whose...
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