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Unformatted text preview: issibility (ibahah) and not wujub. Likewise a prohibition (nahy) in the Quran or the Sunnah may be held to imply abomination (karahah) and not necessarily tahrim. Consequently, when the precise value of the qati and the zanni on the scale of five values is not self-evident, it is determined by supportive evidence that may be available in the sources or by ijtihad. The qati of the Quran and Sunnah is basically not open to interpretation. The scope of interpretation and ijtihad is consequently confined to the zanni proofs alone. 711; Shaltut, Al-IsIam, p. 498.] [Khallaf, 'Ilm, p. 35, Abu Zahrah, Usul, p. Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence ~ Kamali 21 Chapter Two: The First Source of Shari'ah: The Qur'an Being the verbal noun of the root word qara'a (to read), 'Quran' literally means 'reading' or 'recitation'. It may be defined as 'the book containing the speech of God revealed to the Prophet Muhammad in Arabic and transmitted to us by continuous testimony, or tawatur'. [The Quran also calls itself by alternative names, such as kitab, huda, furqan, and dhikr (book, guide, distinguisher, and remembrance respectively). When the definite article, al, is prefixed to the Quran, it refers to the whole of the Book; but without this prefix, the Quran can mean either the whole or a part of the Book. Thus one may refer to a singular sura or ayah thereof as the Quran, but not as al-Qur'an.] It is a proof of the prophecy of Muhammad, the most authoritative guide for Muslims, and the first source of the Shariah. The ulema are unanimous on this, and some even say that it is the only source and that all other sources are explanatory to the Quran. The revelation of the Quran began with the Sura al-'Alaq (96:1) starting with the words 'Read in the name of your Lord' and ending with the ayah in sura al-Maidah (5:3): 'Today I have perfected your religion for you and completed my favour toward you, and chosen Islam as your religion. [Some disagree on this point, saying that the last ayah of the Quran was al-Baqarah 2: 281 as follows: 'Fear the day when you will be brought back to God; then every soul will be paid in full according to whatever it has earned, and they will not be treated unjustly.'] Learning and religious guidance, being the first and the last themes of the Quranic revelation, are thus the favour of God upon mankind. There are 114 suras and 6235 ayat of unequal length in the Quran. The shortest of the suras consist of four and the longest of 286 ayat. Each chapter has a separate title. The longest suras appear first and the suras become shorter as the text proceeds. Both the order of the ayat within each sura, and the sequence of the suras, were re-arranged and finally determined by the Prophet in the year of his demise. According to this arrangement, the Quran begins with sura al-Fatihah and ends with sura al-Nas. Dictionary, P. 485ff; von Denffer, Ulum, p. 68ff.] The contents of the Quran are not classified subject-wise. The ayat on various topics appear in unexpected places, and no partic...
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This note was uploaded on 04/13/2013 for the course ISLAM 101 taught by Professor Islam during the Spring '13 term at Harvey Mudd College.
- Spring '13