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Unformatted text preview: ple. A conflict is encountered between the two rulings of Qur'an concerning the recitation of the portions of the Qur'an in congregational prayers. The question which needs to be answered is, whether in a congregational salah, the congregation member, that is the muqtadi, is required to recite the sura al-Fatihah after the imam, or whether he should remain silent. Two conflicting answers can be derived for this question from the Qur'an. The first of the two ayat under discussion provides: `And when the Qur'an is being read, listen to it attentively and pay heed, so that you may receive mercy' (al-A'raf, 7:204). It would appear that the muqtadi, according to this ayah, should remain silent when the imam recites the Qur'an. However, according to another ayah, everyone, that is both the imam and the muqtadi, is ordered to `read whatever is easy for you of the Qur'an' (alMuzammil, 73:20). Although neither of the two texts make a particular reference to salah, they appear nevertheless to be in conflict with regard to the position of the muqtadi. There is no additional evidence available to enable the preference of one to the other; action is therefore suspended on both and the issue is determined with reference to the Sunnah. It is thus reported that on one occasion when the Prophet led the salah, he asked the members of the congregation whether they recited the Qur'an with him, and having heard their answers, he instructed them not to recite the Qur'an behind the imam. But Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence ~ Kamali 312 there still remains a measure of inconsistency even in the ahadith that are reported on this point, which would explain why the jurists have also differed on it: Abu Hanifah, Malik, Ibn Hanbal, and al-Shafi'i (according to his former view which he revised later) have held that it is not necessary to recite alFatihah behind the imam in those prayers in which he recites the Qur'an aloud, but that when the imam recites quietly, the worshippers should recite al-Fatihah. The later Hanafi jurists have, however, held the view that it is not necessary for the worshipper to recite the Qur'an behind the imam in either case. Abu Dawud, Sunan, II, 211, Hadith no. 825 and footnote no. 373; Badran, Usul, pp. 468-69; Khudari, Usul, p. 359.] In the event where an issue cannot be determined by reference to the Sunnah, the mujtahid may resort to the fatwa of a Companion, and failing that, to qiyas. There is, for example, an apparent conflict between the two reports concerning the way that the Prophet performed the salat al-kusuf, that is, prayer offered on the occasion of a solar eclipse. According to one of the reports, the Prophet offered two units (i.e. two rak'ahs) of salah, each consisting of two bowings (ruku`) and two prostration, (sajdah). But according to another report, each of the two units contained four bowings and four prostrations. There is yet another report to the effect that each of the two rak'ahs contained three bowing, and three prostrations. [14. Abu D...
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This note was uploaded on 04/13/2013 for the course ISLAM 101 taught by Professor Islam during the Spring '13 term at Harvey Mudd College.
- Spring '13